Many of the licences are those of brewers, distillers and publicans, and others in trade, and are paid out of the general profits of the business, so that they can hardly be passed on to the consumers, while other licences are for shooting, for employing carriages and men-servants, and for similar objects, where the charge on the payer is direct.
Many of the questions of the greatest practical importance at the present time, such as the competition between old and new methods of manufacturing commodities substantially the same in kind, and equally useful to the great body of consumers, arise largely from the immobility of capital or labour, or both of them.
Accordingly, in some places large sections of the mains and service pipes were entirely renewed, Constant and the water consumers were put to great expense in supply.
The spread of the modern industrial system has brought with it the modern state, with its millions of consumers, its vast area, its innumerable activities, its complicated code of industrial and commercial law.
In the case of small and irregular consumers, such as the inhabitants of model dwellings and flats inhabited chiefly by working-class tenants, coin-in-the-slot meters are much employed.
Our ability to measure the nutritional value of each piece of food will rise, our knowledge of what makes food healthy will expand, and consumers will demand and receive vastly more information about their food.
While the previous two points focused at the macro level and the overall costs of war, I speak here of consumers' perspective on war.
The sugar manufacture, however, is a protected and bounty-fed industry, and the 51 sugar mills in operation in 1901 are a heavy tax upon consumers and taxpayers.
The inhabitants of Peking being consumers only, and in no way producers, the trade of the city is very small, though the city is open to foreign commerce.
He became president of a consumers' food council in Dec. 1917, so that the office might keep in regular touch with the needs of the public. When Lord Rhondda died, in June 1918, he succeeded him to the general satisfaction.
The commerce of these ports, both in the foreign and domestic trade, is small, tariff regulations being onerous, and the people too impoverished to be consumers of much beyond the barest necessaries of life.
To prevent the war being brought to a premature end by dearth of supplies, the Government took measures, modelled on those adopted in Germany, for ensuring that necessary goods should be supplied to the proper quarters - whether the army authorities, manufacturers of war material, or consumers - and at a moderate price.
Tea Consumption.-The following table gives particulars relative to the principal consuming countries, from which it will be seen that Great Britain and its English-speaking dependencies are the great consumers: Tea Consumption of Chief Consuming Countries in 1906.
The principal herring market is continental Europe, Germany and Russia being the largest consumers, and there has been a growing exportation to the United States.
These are managed mainly in the interests of the surrounding population, and supply grazing or fuel to them at moderate rates, higher charges being levied on consumers who are not inhabitants of the locality.
Dairy-farming is profitable, England and Denmark being the principal foreign consumers of produce, and the industry is carefully fostered by the government.
Richards concludes that the excessive use of opium by the agricultural classes, who are the chief consumers in Orissa, is very rare indeed.
They can charge water rents which depend upon agreements with consumers, or they may charge water rates assessed on the net annual value of the premises supplied.
In 1908 the chief consumers of Rumanian goods were (in order) Belgium, Great Britain and Italy; the chief exporters to Rumania were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain and France.
Under it the state bought liquors, graded them in accordance with a chemical analysis, and sold them to consumers in packages of not less than one half-pint; the dispensaries were open from sunrise to sunset, no sales were made to minors or drunkards, and no liquor was drunk on the premises; there was a state dispensary commissioner and a state board of control; and the profits were divided between the state, the counties and the municipalities, the share of the state being devoted to educational purposes.