The gas is distributed to the consumer from the wells in wrought-iron pipes, ranging in diameter from 20 in.
The industry is conducted upon a basis of recognized standards of quality, and testing is necessary in the interests of both refiner and consumer, as well as compulsory in connexion with the various statutory and municipal regulations.
The systems of filtration employed by the different companies varied in efficacy, but both the Royal Commissions decided that water as supplied to the consumer was generally of a very high standard of purity.
On the other hand the resistance of the shunt coil absorbs energy which generally varies from i to 3 watts and is a loss either to the consumer or to the supply company, according to the manner in which the shunt coil is connected.
As any bacteria present in the milk tend to multiply rapidly on the way to the consumer, it is mainly a question of the time which elapses before consumption.
The United States is the gleatest lead producer and consumer in the world, its percentage of the total output and consumption averaging 30.4% and 32-5% respectively in the years 1904-1908.
There is a considerable amount of re-selling both in yarn and cloth, and, though the bulk of cotton goods finds the way through regular and normal channels to the consumer, these channels are not always direct.
More primitive methods of transit, the system is still continued to meet the wants of the consumer who would not recognize his tea in any other shape.
In addition to these four classes, out of each are sifted all the smaller fragments of leaf broken in the process of manufacture, which are termed Broken Orange Pekoe, &c. These broken grades are frequently objected to by the consumer, under the impression that they are inferior in quality, but in the opinion of experts, the more the leaf is broken up, the better is the liquor upon infusion.
In Russia tea costs more to the consumer than in any country where modern transit by railway and steamer exists.
In the modern days of machine-made black tea, produced under British supervision, both the tea-taster and the ordinary consumer have to deal with a product which, if carefully converted into a beverage and used in moderation, should be harmless to all normal human beings.
In Oriental systems of taxation high imposts on salt are seldom lacking and are often carried out in a very oppressive way, one result of this being that the article is apt to reach the consumer in a very impure state largely mixed with earth.
Communication is now free; and it has been found that prices are absolutely lowered by thus bringing the consumer nearer to his market, even though the rate of taxation be increased.
In other words, excise duties in India are not a mere tax upon the consumer, levied for convenience through the manufacturer and retail dealer, but a species of government monopoly.
If carefully prepared there is no objection to these basis wines from a hygienic point of view, although they have not the delicate qualities and stimulating effects of natural wines; unfortunately, however, these wines have in the past been vended on a large scale in a manner calculated to deceive the consumer as to their real nature, but energetic measures, which have of late been taken in most countries affected by this trade, have done much to mitigate the evil.
Huxley's conclusions as regards the future of the oyster industry in Great Britain are doubtless just as applicable to other countries - that the only hope for the oyster consumer lies in the encouragement of oyster-culture, and in the development of some means of breeding oysters under such conditions that the spat shall be safely deposited.
The conclusions at which he arrives are in the main as follows: a tax on raw produce falls on the consumer, but will also diminish profits; a tax on rents on the landlord; taxes on houses will be divided between the occupier and the ground landlord; taxes on profits will be paid by the consumer, and taxes on wages by the capitalist.
The United Kingdom, which annually purchases wine to the value of about £900,000 and cork to the value of about £500,000, is the chief consumer of Portuguese goods, and the chief exporter to Portugal.
Sometimes also, when a charge upon a commodity is not of such a figure as to be easily divisible among the ordinary units of retail consumption, so that it can be passed on to a consumer of the articles in the form of an increased price, it may remain fixed upon those who first pay it, at least for a time.
Excise duties are charges upon commodities produced at home on their way to the consumer, and customs duties in the United Kingdom are charges upon commodities brought into the country from abroad; and they are of essentially the same nature.
[Adam Smith specially praises indirect taxes on commodities under this head, because the consumer "pays them by little and little as he buys the goods," and "it must be his own fault if he ever suffers any considerable inconveniency from such taxes."] 4.
There was a rising worldwide consumption of consumer goods.
Since war historically has interrupted the flow of consumer goods, and would do so even more in our present interconnected world, preserving our hard-earned possessions provides an additional disincentive to war.