Beyond Notre-Dame d'Afrique is the beautiful Valley of the Consuls, very little changed since the time of the deys.
(The valley was in those days the favourite residence of the consuls.) At the Petit Seminaire, on the site of the old French consulate, Cardinal Lavigerie died (1892).
In the republics, as we begin to know them after the war of investitures, government was carried on by officers called consuls, varying in number according to custom and according to the division of the town into districts.
But, in proportion as the people gained more power in the field the consuls rose into importance, superseded the bishops and began to represent the city in transactions with its neighbors.
Popes and emperors who needed the assistance of a city, had to seek it from the consuls, and thus these officers gradually converted an obscure and indefinite authority into what resembles the presidency of a commonwealth.
It will be perceived that the type was rather oligarchical than strictly democratic. Between the parlamento and the consuls with their privy council, or credenza, was interposed the gran consiglio of privileged burghers.
The comune included the entire citybishop, consuls, oligarchy, councils, handicraftsmen, proletariate.
Under their consuls the Italian burghs rose to a great height of prosperity and splendour.
Is the real meaning of the legend that Pisa, glorious through her consuls, brought the pandects in a single codex from Amalfi.
He came to supersede self-government by consuls, to deprive the cities of the privilege of making war on their own account and to extort his regalian rights of forage, food and lodging for his armies.
They fortified their houses, retained their military habits, defied the consuls, and carried on feuds in the streets and squares.
The war against the castles became a war against the palaces; and the system of government by consuls proved inefficient to control the clashing elements within the state.
The consuls are merged in ancients or priors, chosen from the arts.
Likened to " pro-consuls " and declared to have " ordinary " jurisdiction; because they had jurisdiction over every kind of cause, without any special delegation, in a certain defined area or province (c. ii.
Both consuls might be plebeians, both could not be patricians; a patrician could not wield the great powers vested in the tribunes of the commons.
Boetius regarded it as the height of his good fortune when he witnessed his two sons, consuls at the same time, convoyed from their home to the senate-house amid the enthusiasm of the masses.
It was then governed by consuls, but various changes of constitution supervened in the direction of enlarging the governing body.
The foreign consuls intervened in the hope of bringing about a peaceful settlement, but the Sultan resolved on the employment of force, and an expedition despatched to Vamos effected the relief of that town with a loss of 200 men.
To emphasize the superiority of this imperium over that of the consuls, the dictator might be preceded by twenty-four lictors, not by the usual twelve; and, at least in the earlier period of the office, these lictors bore the axes, the symbols of life and death, within the city walls.
In the 12th century it was a free city, governed by a podesta and consuls after the model of the Italian republics, which it also emulated in commerce and navigation.
Lucien now consolidated the work of the soldiery by procuring from the Ancients a decree which named Bonaparte, Sieyes and Ducos as provisional consuls, while a legislative commission was appointed to report on necessary changes in the constitution.
Three consuls had been appointed, she remarked, precisely in order that power might not be vested in the hands of one man.
Only by degrees did the events of the 19th of Brumaire stand out in their real significance; for the new consuls, installed at the Luxemburg palace, and somewhat later at the Tuileries, took care that the new constitution, which they along with the two commissions were now secretly drawing up, should not be promulgated until Paris and France had settled down to the ordinary life of pleasure and toil.
There is a tradition that Venice was founded by "consuls from Padua"; and Padua claimed complete control of the course of the Brenta down to its mouth at Malamocco.
Distinct from all these courts, if similar in its sphere, is the court which the Italian quarter generally enjoyed in each town under its own consuls - a court privileged to try all but the graver cases, like murder, theft and forgery.
The installation of the consuls regulated the commencement of the consular year.
The age of real autonomy, signalized by the supremacy of consuls in the cities, had arrived.
In vain did Sieyes modify his scheme so as to provide for two consuls, one holding the chief executive powers for war, the other for peace.
Improving upon the procedure of the Convention in Vendemiaire 1795, Bonaparte procured the nomination of three consuls in an article of the new constitution; they were Bonaparte (First Consul), Cambaceres and Lebrun.
The latter two, uniting with the two retiring consuls, Sieyes and Ducos, were to form the nucleus of the senate and choose the majority among its full complement of sixty members, the minority being thereafter chosen by co-optation.
- As for the second and third consuls, their functions were almost entirely consultative and formal, their opposition being recorded, but having no further significance against the fiat of the First Consul.
Thus he represented in the earliest times the king and in later times the consul or consuls when he or they were absent on a campaign or on other public duties, such as the celebration of the annual Latin festival on the Alban Mount.
Hence so long as the consuls were the only higher magistrates their frequent absence often rendered the appointment of a praefect necessary, but after the institution of the praetorship (367 B.C.) the necessity only arose exceptionally, as it rarely happened that both the consuls and the praetor were absent simultaneously.
Dictator or consul) whose deputy he was, but it seems to have been withdrawn from the consuls by the Licinian law (367), except that they still nominated praefects for the time of the festival.
Augustus occasionally appointed a city praefect to represent him in his absence from Italy, although the praetors, or even one of the consuls, remained in the capital.
- Under the republic the contingents furnished to the Roman armies by the Italian allies were commanded by Roman officers called praefecti socium (sociorum), who were nominated by the consuls and corresponded to the tribunes in the legions.
To the east of the town a large Arab village had grown up, inhabited for the most part by natives of Egypt and Cyrenaica, who acted as boatmen, porters and servants, but since the fall of the Turkish government most of these have quitted the island; while about a mile off on the rising ground is the village of Khalepa, where the consuls and merchants reside.
Cicero states that from the earliest period down to the pontificate of Publius Mucius Scaevola (c. 131 B.C.), it was usual for the pontifex maximus to record on a white tablet (album), which was exhibited in an open place at his house, so that the people might read it, first, the name of the consuls and other magistrates, and then the noteworthy events that had occurred during the year (per singulos dies, as Servius says).
Resht has a population of 60,000 and is the residence of English, Russian, French and Turkish consuls and the seat of the governor-general of the province of Gilan.
Thus it is not surprising that Pisa should already have had its own code of laws (Consuetudini di mare), which in 1075 were approved by Gregory VII., and in 1081 confirmed by a patent from the emperor Henry IV., a document which mentions for the first time the existence of a magistrate analogous to the consuls of the republic, although the latter, according to some writers, already existed in Pisa as early as the year 1080; the point, however, is doubtful, and other writers place the first authentic mention of the consuls in the year 1094.1 The oldest of Pisan statutes still extant is the Breve dei consoli di mare of 1162.
In 1099 the Pisans joined in the second crusade, proved their valour at the capture of Jerusalem, and derived many commercial advantages from it; for within a short time they had banks, consuls, warehouses and privileges of all kinds in every Eastern port.
Instead of the consuls there were now twelve elders (anziani); besides the podesta, there was a captain of the people; and there was a general council as well as a senate of forty members.