Spiders form at least two kinds of constructions - snares for the capture of prey and nests for the preservation of the young.
And the algebraists or arithmeticians of the 16th century, such as Luca Pacioli (Lucas de Borgo), Geronimo or Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), and Niccola Tartaglia (1506-1559), had used geometrical constructions to throw light on the solution of particular equations.
These figures include not only the categories of income and expenditure proper, but also those known as movement of capital, railway constructions and part ite di giro, which do not constitute real income and expenditure.i Considering only income and expenditure proper, the approximate totals are:
His style is clear, direct and remarkably free from cumbrous Latin constructions; he employed, whenever he could, the pithy and homely sayings of the peasants, and is not reluctant to point his moral with a rough humour.
By the year 1878 there were four parallel lines in the city of New York, and constructions of the same character had already been projected in Brooklyn and Chicago and, with certain modifications of details, in Berlin.
In the course of constructions for surfaces to reflect to one and the same point (1) all rays in whatever direction passing through another point, (2) a set of parallel rays, Anthemius assumes a property of an ellipse not found in Apollonius (the equality of the angles subtended at a.
(a) Hebrew constructions and expressions are to be found in every page.
They teach further the solution of problems leading to equations of the first and second degree, to determinate and indeterminate equations, not by single and double position only, but by real algebra, proved by means of geometric constructions, and including the use of letters as symbols for known numbers, the unknown quantity being called res and its square census.
LORENZO MASCHERONI (1750-1800), Italian geometer, was professor of mathematics at the university of Pavia, and published a variety of mathematical works, the best known of which is his Geometria del compasso (Pavia, 1797), a collection of geometrical constructions in which the use of the circle alone is postulated.
Many of the solutions are most ingenious, and some of the constructions of considerable practical importance.
If ABCD is a tetrahedron of reference, any point P in space is determined by an equation of the form (a+13+ - y+5) P = aA+sB +yC +SD: a, a, y, b are, in fact, equivalent to a set of homogeneous coordinates of P. For constructions in a fixed plane three points of reference are sufficient.
He improved the methods for solving equations, and devised geometrical constructions with the aid of the conic sections.
So far the development of algebra and geometry had been mutually independent, except for a few isolated applications of geometrical constructions to the solution of algebraical problems. Certain minds had long suspected the advantages which would accrue from the unrestricted application of algebra to geometry, but it was not until the advent of the philosopher Rene Descartes that the co-ordination was effected.
After it had been supplanted by Arabic in the ordinary intercourse of life its literary use was more and more affected by Arabic words and constructions, and its freedom as a vehicle of thought was much impaired.
2 Manicheans, Bogomils, Cathars and Paulicians for like reasons denied the name of church to material constructions of wood and stone.
Thick, must represent a period of about 3000 years, more especially as older constructions had to be levelled before the pavement was laid.
- In laboratory practice use is made of a fairly constant type of apparatus, only trifling modifications being generally necessary to adapt the apparatus for any distillation or fractionation; in technology, on the other hand, many questions have to be considered which generally demand the adoption of special constructions for the economic distillation of different substances.
The nymphaea of the Roman period were borrowed from the constructions of the Hellenistic east.
Contrivances of the most diverse constructions have been employed.
This class of burner forms a basis on which all the later constructions of burner have been founded, but had the drawback that if the flame was turned low, insufficient air to prevent carbonization of the burner tips was drawn in, owing to the reduced flow of gas.
Similar constructions have been described by travellers, among the Dyaks of Borneo, in Celebes, in the Caroline Islands, on the Gold Coast of Africa, and in other places.
They are most abundant in the plains of northern Italy traversed by the Po and its tributaries, though similar constructions have been found in Hungary in the valley of the Theiss.
Some of the Italian terremare show quadrangular constructions made like the modern log houses, of undressed tree trunks superposed longitudinally and overlapping at the ends, as at Castione in the province of Parma.
Desor, Les Palafittes ou constructions lacustres du lac de Neuchatel (Paris, 1865); E.
Perrin, Etude prehistorique sur la Savoie specialement a l'époque lacustre (Les Palafittes du lac de Bourget, Paris, 1870); Ernest Chantre, Les Palafittes ou constructions lacustres du lac de Paladru (Chambery, 1871); Bartolomeo Gastaldi, Lake Habitations and prehistoric Remains in the Turbaries and Marl-beds of Northern and Central Italy, translated by C. H.
Overhead railways are virtually continuous bridge constructions, and much attention has been given to a study of the special conditions appertaining to that case.
The queen sadly needed such of Wel a counsellor, for Prince Albert's position was one full of difficulty, and party malignity was continually putting wrong constructions upon the advice which he gave, and imputing to him advice which he did not give.
Confirmatory evidence of this is to be found, not only in the character of their constructions, but in the circumstance that a tribe closely akin to the Mayas (the Huastecos) still occupies a retired mountain valley of Vera Cruz, entirely separated from their kinsmen of the south, and that a dialect of the Maya language is still spoken in northern Vera Cruz.
But the fantastic relations imagined by him of planetary movements and distances to musical intervals and geometrical constructions seemed to himself discoveries no less admirable than the achievements which have secured his lasting fame.
Other words, by a non-Euclidean construction he trisected the angle AOC, for it is readily seen that, since FD' = FO = OC, the angle FOB = 2 AOC. 6 This couplet of constructions is as important from the calculator's point of view as it is interesting geometrically.
The tower resembles similar constructions found beside Irish churches of the 7th and 8th centuries and has walls 3 ft.
The second class of altars, called (3wyoi by the Greeks and altaria by the Romans, appears to have originated in temporary constructions such as heaps of earth, turf or stone, made for kindling a sacrificial fire as occasion required.
The earlier Buddhist constructions have proved more durable than the Mahommedan buildings.
With this comes the whole vast and ever-widening range of inventive and adaptive art, where the uniform hereditary instinct of the cell-forming bee and the nest-building bird is supplanted by multiform processes and constructions, often at first rude and clumsy in comparison to those of the lower instinct, but carried on by the faculty of improvement and new invention into ever higher stages.
With our present knowledge of such constructions, their date cannot certainly be determined.
- Geometrical constructions relating to the curves above described are to be found in T.
Edwards, Differential Calculus, and for geometrical constructions see T.
Very little but its foundations was spared by later builders, and there is now no certain evidence of its architectural character; but it is very probable that it was the early temple in which the Ionic order is said to have been first used, after the colonists had made use of Doric in their earlier constructions (e.g.
The acceleration of a second point, usually taken at the centre of the crosshead pin, can be found by the principles of 82, but several special geometrical constructions have been devised for this purpose, notably the construction of Klein,i discovered also independently by Kirsch.i But probably the most convenient is the construction due to G.
Klein, New Constructions of the Force of Inertia of Connecting Rods and Couplers and Constructions of the Pressures on their Pins, Journ.
Homer uses no constructions loosely or without corresponding differences of meaning.
One of the most beautiful graphical constructions regularly used by engineers and known as the method of reciprocal figures is that for finding the loads supported by the several members of a braced structure, having given a system of external loads.