This court passes on the constitutionality of all laws, decrees and regulations.
The question of the constitutionality of the formation of the new state was brought before the Supreme Court of the United States in the following manner.
It is the supreme tribunal of the republic, having original jurisdiction in cases of impeachment, the constitutionality of laws, and controversies between states or officials.
The concurrence of at least three judges is necessary to the decision of a case involving the constitutionality of a law.
Under such conditions the Southern states questioned the constitutionality of the imposition.
He contested the constitutionality of the Civil Rights Bill, opposed the resumption of specie payments, advocated the payment of the public debt in silver and supported the Bland-Allison Act.
The earliest of these is his report of the argument of James Otis in the superior court of Massachusetts as to the constitutionality of writs of assistance.
The supreme court is almost without exception a court of appeal with jurisdiction in cases involving at least $2000, in cases of divorce, in suits regarding adoption, legitimacy and custody of children and as regards the legality and constitutionality of taxes, fines, &c. The supreme court appoints courts of appeal to judge cases involving less than $2000.
The supreme tribunal has original and appellate jurisdiction, but its power to pass on the constitutionality of federal laws and executive acts seems to fall short of that of the United States Supreme Court.
Trajan emphasized at once his personal control and the constitutionality of his sway by bearing on his campaigns the actual title of "proconsul," which no other emperor had done.
His critics said that his course in this matter was unconstitutional, although the question of constitutionality has never been raised before any national or international tribunal.
The strong anti-slavery sentiment here manifested, itself in 1851 in the famous " Jerry rescue," one of the most significant episodes following the enactment of the Fugitive .Slave Law of 1850; Samuel May, pastor of the Unitarian church, and seventeen others, arrested for assisting in the rescue, were never brought to trial, although May and two others publicly admitted that they had taken part in the rescue, and announced that they would contest the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Law, if they were tried.
In 1906 the question of uniting Allegheny with Pittsburg under one municipal government was submitted to a joint vote of the electorate of the two cities, in accordance with an act of the state legislature, which had been passed in February of that year, and a large majority voted for the union; but there was determined opposition in Allegheny, every ward of the city voting in the negative; the constitutionality of the act was challenged; the supreme court of the state on the 11th of March 1907 declared the act valid, and on the 18th of November 1907 this decision was affirmed by the Supreme Court of the United States.
Madison's theory was that the legislature of Virginia, being one of the bodies which had chosen delegates to the constitutional convention, was legally capable of considering the question of the constitutionality of laws passed by the Federal government, and that the state of Virginia might invite other states to join her, but could not singly, as Calhoun argued, declare any law of the Federal legislature null and void.
This court has jurisdiction of appeals from equity courts in which the amount in controversy does not exceed $1000, except in cases involving the constitutionality of a Tennessee statute, contested election or state revenue, and ejectment suits; it has jurisdiction also of civil cases tried in the circuit and common law courts in which writs of error or appeals in the nature of writs of error are applied for.
The president, who must be at least 35 years old, is elected by popular vote for four years, is ineligible to succeed himself and appoints cabinet members (secretaries of foreign affairs, government and justice, treasury, interior [" fomento "1 and public instruction); five supreme court judges (who decide on the constitutionality of a bill vetoed by the president on constitutional grounds - their action, if favourable to the constitutionality of such a bill, makes the president's signature mandatory); diplomatic representatives; and the governors (annually) of the provinces, who are responsible only to him.
Among the measures adopted were: a'law (of doubtful constitutionality) requiring legislators to vote for the people's choice for a United States senator - this was adopted by a vote of 69,668 to 21,162; a corrupt practices act, regulating the expenditure of moneys in political campaigns and limiting a candidate's expenses to onefourth of one year's salary; an amendment permitting the establishment of state institutions elsewhere than at the capital; an amendment changing the time of state elections from June to November; an amendment permitting the legislature to pass a law providing for proportional representation, i.e.
Perhaps the most influential of President Buchanan's official advisers, he denied the constitutionality of secession, and urged that Fort Sumter be properly reinforced and defended.