The latter immediately proclaimed the constitution, but the new king, Charles Felix, who was at Modena at the time, repudiated the regents acts and exiled him to Tuscany; and, with his consent, an Austrian army invaded Piedmont and crushed the constitutionalists at Novara.
These very considerations naturally combined to recommend the fact to constitutionalists, who saw in it, besides the territorial guarantee, the elimination of the danger of foreign interference in the relations between Italy and the Vatican, such as Bismarck had recently threatened and such as France was believed ready to propose.
The struggle which the constitutionalists and royalists of Marseilles made against the central government furnished Bonaparte with an occasion for writing his first important political pamphlet, entitled "Le Souper de Beaucaire."
Finally an agreement was arrived at between the aristocratic constitutionalists and the popular party, as a result of which the grand-duke's participation in the war was formally demanded.
In Bloemfontein the Constitutionalists had a strong following; elsewhere their supporters were numerically weak.
They resulted in the return of 29 members of the Oranjie Unie, 5 Constitutionalists and 4 Independents.
The Constitutionalists won four of the five seats allotted to Bloemfontein, Sir John Fraser being among those returned.
Of the members of the first legislative council five were supporters of the Oranjie Unie and five were regarded as Constitutionalists, the eleventh member holding the balance.
The party which had carried this constitution through attacked its opponents by withdrawing the charter of the college of Philadelphia (now the university of Pennsylvania) because its trustees were anti-Constitutionalists and creating in its place a university of the State of Pennsyl vania.
The Constitutional party in 1785 secured the annulment by the state assembly of the charter of the Bank of North America, which still retained a congressional charter; and the cause of this action also seems to have been party feeling against the anti-Constitutionalists, among whom Robert Morris of the bank was a leader, and who, especially Morris, had opposed the paper money policy of the Constitutionalists.
Twenty-four Constitutionalists and thirty Declaranten were chosen; the latter, of course, did not go to Vienna, but the additional twenty-four made a working majority by which the government was carried on for the rest of the year.
Against them were 227 Constitutionalists, and it seemed to matter little that they were divided into three groups; there were 105 in the Liberal Club under the leadership of Herbst, 57 Constitutionalists, elected by the landed proprietors, and a third body of Radicals, some of whom were more democratic than the old Constitutional party, while others laid more stress on nationality.
The constitutionalists remained I See Wirth, Geschichte der Handelskrisen (Frankfort, 1885); and an interesting article by Schaffle in the Zeitschrift f.
The Liberals had also lost many seats, so that the House now had a completely different aspect; the constitutionalists were reduced to 91 Liberals and 54 Radicals; but the Right, under Hohenwart, had increased to 57, and there were 57 Poles and 54 Czechs.
There was a large minority of constitutionalists; they might easily become a majority, and the Right were therefore obliged to support Taaffe in order to avert this.
It was impossible to maintain a strong party of moderate constitutionalists, on whom the government could depend, unless there was a large nucleus from Lower Austria.
Meanwhile complex intrigues occurred, and were betrayed, between " the Club " (the advanced constitutionalists) and the Jacobites.
From this time, however, his value for the ordered liberty of constitutional government increased; and though never exactly to be found among the ranks of old-fashioned Constitutionalists, during the remainder of his life he kept steadily in view the principles which received their full exposition in his wellknown work on Church and State.
The unsatisfied ambition of Carlota Joaquina and the hostility between absolutists and constitutionalists might at any moment precipitate a civil war.