The fungal constituents vary considerably.
Reference may first be made to the important mineral constituents of different crops of the four-course rotation.
Speaking generally, all plants tend to exhaust particular constituents of the soil on which they grow.
His opponent would be disposed to say that the iodine and the mercury ceased to exist when the red powder was formed, that they were components but not constituents of it.
Notwithstanding this prospective loss of revenue, parliament showed great reluctance to vote any new impost, although hardly a year previously it had sanctioned (3oth June 1879) Depretiss scheme for spending during the next eighteen years 43,200,000 in building 5000 kilometres of railway, an expenditure not wholly justified by the importance of the lines, and useful principally as a source of electoral sops for the constituents of ministerial deputies.
Since about 1880 our knowledge of the species which can enter into such relationships has been materially extended, and the fungal constituents of the Lichens are known to include Basidiomycetes as well as Ascomycetes.
Its solvent power is also utilized in the production of various colouring fluids, where the colouring matter would not dissolve in water alone; thus aniline violet, the tinctorial constituents of madder, and various allied colouring matters dissolve in glycerin, forming liquids which remain coloured even when diluted with water, the colouring matters being either retained in suspension or dissolved by the glycerin present in the diluted fluid.
By far the greater proportion of those constituents remains in circulation in the manure of the farm, whilst the remainder yields highly valuable products for sale in the forms of meat and milk.
It has further been shown that, in the exercise of force by animals, there is a greatly increased expenditure of the non-nitrogenous constituents of food, but little, if any, of the nitrogenous.
Others are deprived of a part of their more volatile constituents by spontaneous evaporation, or by distillation, in vacuo or otherwise, at the lowest possible temperature.
The cracking process practically consists in distilling the oils at a temperature higher than the normal boiling point of the constituents which it is desired to decompose.
Accountability must be at as low a level as possible, so that if government officials mess up, they answer to constituents in their locality.
Let us now imagine what degree of transparency of air is admitted by its molecular constituents, viz.
One remarkable discovery, however, of general interest, was the outcome of a long series of delicate weighings and minute experimental care in the determination of the relative density of nitrogen gas - undertaken in order to determine the atomic weight of nitrogen - namely, the discovery of argon, the first of a series of new substances, chemically inert, which occur, some only in excessively minute quantities, as constituents of the 1 The barony was created at George IV.'s coronation in 1821 for the wife of Joseph Holden Strutt, M.P. for Maldon (1790-1826) and Okehampton (1826-1830), who had done great service during the French War as colonel of the Essex militia.
The mass of the people remained unrepresented in the government; and even if the consuls existed in the days of Heribert, they were but humble legal officers, transacting business for their constituents in the courts of the bishop and his viscount.
The subsequent events of Italian history will be rendered most intelligible if at this point we trace the development of these five constituents of Italian greatness separately.
At that date the science of chemistry was very imperfectly known, and the real constituents of ordinary remedies so little understood that different virtues were attributed to different products containing the same constituents.
The raw materials from which the food is constructed are absorbed from the exterior in solution in water, and the latter is the medium through which the gaseous constituents necessary for life reach the protoplasm.
This system of intercellular spaces, extending throughout the plant, constitutes a reservoir, charged with an atmosphere which differs somewhat in its composition from the external air, its gaseous constituents varying from time to time and from place to place, in consequence of the interchanges between itself and the protoplaste.
It may at other times lead to great difficulties in the supply of the gaseous constituents which are used in the manufacture of food.
B~it the staining reactions of nuclei may vary at different stages of their development; and it i~ probable that there is no method of staining which differentiates with certainty the various morphological constituents of the nucleus.
This modification is important, because it transfers the formative influence from the plastic substances to the protoplasm, suggesting that, the diverse constituents are produced (whether spontaneously or as the result of stimulation) as secretions by the protoplasm.
The chief constituents of colchicum are two alkaloids, colchicine and veratrine.
The introduction of new plants, which made it possible to dispense with the bare fallow, and still later the application to husbandry of scientific discoveries as to soils, plant constituents and manures, brought about a revolution in farming.
Of mineral constituents, whether used alone or in mixture with nitrogenous manures, phosphates are much more effective than mixtures of salts of potash, soda and magnesia.
Moreover, the crops alternated with the cereals accumulate very much more of mineral constituents and of nitrogen in their produce than do the cereals themselves.
In the feeding experiments which have been carried on at Rothamsted it has been shown that the amount consumed both for a given live weight of animal within a given time, and for the production of a given amount of increase, is, as current food-stuffs go, measurable more by the amounts they contain of digestible and available non-nitrogenous constituents than by the amounts of the digestible and available nitrogenous constituents they supply.
The non-nitrogenous substance (the fat) in the increase in live weight of an animal is, at any rate in great part, if not entirely, derived from the non-nitrogenous constituents of the food.
Thus, then, alike for maintenance, for increase, and for the exercise of force, the exigencies of the system are characterized more by the demand for the digestible nonnitrogenous or more specially respiratory and fat-forming constituents than by that for the nitrogenous or more specially flesh-forming ones.
Hence, as current fattening food-stuffs go - assuming, of course, that they are not abnormally low in the nitrogenous constituents - they are, as foods, more valuable in proportion to their richness in digestible and available nonnitrogenous than to that of their nitrogenous constituents.
In other words, the whole mental structure we call knowledge consists, in its simplest equally with its most complex constituents, of the "work of the mind."
The average of a large number of analyses of Upland cotton seed gives the following figures for its fertilizing constituents: - Nitrogen, 3.07%; phosphoric acid, 1.02%; potash, 1.17%; besides small amounts of lime, magnesia and other valuable but less important ingredients.
Sea Island cotton seed is rather more valuable than Upland: the corresponding figures for the three principal constituents being nitrogen 3.51, phosphoric acid 1 69, potash 1.59%.
Calcium citrate must be manufactured with care to avoid an excess of chalk or lime, which would precipitate constituents of the juice that cause the fermentation of the citrate and the production of calcium acetate and butyrate.
Accordingly, the credentials must also be constituents of the revelation.
The boiling point, being determined by the character of the constituents of the oil, necessarily varies greatly in different oils, as do the amounts of distillate obtained from them at specified temperatures.
The operation was, however, completely revolutionized in the United States by the introduction of the " cracking process," and by the division of the distillation into two parts, one consisting in the removal of the more volatile constituents of the oil, and the other in the distillation (which is usually conducted in separate stills) of the residues from the first distillation, for the production of lubricating oils and paraffin.
Either common salt or strong brine in measured quantity is added to the charge, and, the soap being insoluble in such salt solution, a separation of constituents takes place: the soap collects on the surface in an open granular condition, and the spent lye sinks to the bottom after it has been left for a short time to settle.
There is no separation of underlyes in potash soap, consequently the product contains the whole constituents of the oils used, as the operation of salting out is quite impracticable owing to the double decomposition which results from the action of salt, producing thereby a hard principally soda soap with formation of potassium chloride.
Later, as in the works attributed to Basil Valentine, sulphur, mercury and salt are held to be the constituents of the metals.
Though an alchemist, Boyle, in his Sceptical Chemist (1661), cast doubts on the " experiments whereby vulgar Spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their salt, sulphur and mercury to be the true principles of things," and advanced towards the conception of chemical elements as those constituents of matter which cannot be further decomposed.
In the view of some alchemists, the ultimate principles of matter were Aristotle's four elements; the proximate constituents were a " sulphur " and a " mercury," the father and mother of the metals; gold was supposed to have attained to the perfection of its nature by passing in succession through the forms of lead, brass and silver; gold and silver were held to contain very pure red sulphur and white quicksilver, whereas in the other metals these materials were coarser and of a different colour.
In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the methods generally forced upon chemists are those of fractional precipitation or crystallization; the striking resemblances of the compounds of these elements rarely admitting of a complete separation by simple precipitation and filtration.
In 1841 Mosander, having in 1839 discovered a new element lanthanum in the mineral cerite, isolated this element and also a hitherto unrecognized substance, didymia, from crude yttria, and two years later he announced the determination of two fresh constituents of the same earth, naming them erbia and terbia.
2 Compound radicals came to be regarded as the immediate constituents of organic compounds; and, at first, a determination of their empirical composition was supposed to be sufficient to characterize them.
Analytical Chemistry This branch of chemistry has for its province the determination of the constituents of a chemical compound or of a mixture of compounds.
More useful is the property of isomorphous substances of forming mixed crystals, which are strictly isomorphous with their constituents, for all variations in composition.
Rosenbuschite, hiortdahlite, and some other rare members containing zirconium and fluorine, occur as accessory constituents in the nephelinesyenite of southern Norway.
" Nucleo-proteids," constituents of the cell-nucleus, are combinations of albumins and nucleic acid; they always contain iron.
Often this felsitic devitrified glass is so fine-grained that its constituents cannot be directly determined even with the aid of the microscope, but chemical analysis leaves little doubt as to the real nature cf the minerals which have been formed.
To explain these facts, Theodor Grotthus (1785-1822) in 1806 put forward an hypothesis which supposed that the opposite chemical constituents of an electrolyte interchanged partners all along the line between the electrodes when a current passed.
Of considerable importance to the value of the rubber is the absence of the resinous constituents which are present in greater or smaller proportion in all latices.
Pasteur proved that the inactivity of the one acid depended upon the fact that it was composed of two isomeric constituents: one the ordinary or dextrorotary acid, and the other a new acid, which possessed an equally powerful left-handed action.
Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.
The effect of chemical agents in producing coagulation are in consonance with what is known of other instances of polymeric or condensation changes, whilst the fact that the collection of globules separated by creaming after thorough washing, and therefore removal of all proteid, is susceptible of solidification into caoutchouc by a merely mechanical act such as churning, strongly supports the view that the character of the change is distinct from that of any alteration which may occur in the proteid constituents of the latex.