The ancient Greeks associated this constellation with many myths.
The Greeks personified the constellation Andromeda as a woman with her arms extended and chained.
The Greeks identified this constellation with the nymph Callisto, placed in the heavens by Zeus in the form of a bear together with her son Arcas as " bear-warder," or Arcturus; they named it Arctos, the she-bear, Helice, from its turning round the pole-star.
Although not an astronomical work, several constellation subjects are introduced.
The constellation Orion is mentioned by Homer (Il.
27); (4) he determined the diameter of the sun to be the 720th part of the zodiac; 6 (5) he appears to have pointed out the constellation of the Lesser Bear to his countrymen, and instructed them to steer by it [as nearer the pole] instead of the Great Bear (Callimachus ap. Diog.
In the heavens she is amongst the signs of the zodiac as the constellation Virgo.
Working out the calculations, Pettersson finds that the favourable constellation occurred and will occur in 3500 B.C., 1900 B.C., 250 B.C., 1433 A.D., 3300 A.D., and so on.
An interesting member of this constellation is a-Capricorni, a pair of stars of 3rd and 4th magnitudes, each of which has a companion of the 9th magnitude.
'AQUILA, in astronomy, the " Eagle," sometimes named the " Vulture," a constellation of the northern hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th cent.
Abarbanel (Abrabanel), records that the conjunction of these particular planets in this particular constellation was to be a sign of Messiah's coming.
We are wont to imagine rare and delectable places in some remote and more celestial corner of the system, behind the constellation of Cassiopeia's Chair, far from noise and disturbance.
The Romans knew the constellation as Arctos or Ursa; the Arabians termed the quadrilateral, formed by the four stars a, 0, y, b, Na'sh, a bier, whence it is sometimes known as Feretrum majus.
Now such a constellation as the following must sometimes exist: the earth is in perihelion; the line of nodes coincides with the line of apsides and both lie in the line joining earth and sun.
He proceeded in the beginning of 1847 to Berlin, attracted thither by that brilliant constellation of mathematical genius whose principal stars were P. G.
AURIGA (the "charioteer" or "waggoner"), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere, found in the catalogues of Eudoxus (4th century B.e.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.).
The constellation of the Great Bear, generally associated with Odin, is Karlswagen in German, and Charles's Wain in English.
276-324), a celebrated antiquary who recognized in the adjacent mountain peaks a correspondence with the stars in the constellation of the Great Bear, from which circumstance the town was first known as the Tow or Great Bear city.
Accordingly this mean motion of the stars relative to the sun has been more generally regarded from another point of view as a motion (in the opposite direction-towards the constellation Lyra) of the sun relatively to the stars.
SAGITTA ("the arrow" or "dart"), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.), and catalogued by Ptolemy, Tycho Brahe and Hevelius, who each described 5 stars.
The name Coma Berenices, applied to a constellation, commemorates this incident.
It is believed that the ultimate origin of the constellation figures and names is to be found in the corresponding systems in vogue among the primitive civilizations of the Euphrates valley - the Sumerians, Accadians and Babylonians; that these were carried westward into ancient Greece by the Phoenicians, and to the lands of Asia Minor by the Hittites, and that Hellenic culture in its turn introduced them into Arabia, Persia and India.
At one time it was held that the constellation names and myths were of Greek origin; this view has now been disproved, and an examination of the Hellenic myths associated with the stars and star-groups in the light of the records revealed by the decipherment of Euphratean cuneiforms leads to the conclusion that in many, if not all, cases the Greek myth has a Euphratean parallel, and so renders it probable that the Greek constellation system and the cognate legends are primarily of Semitic or even pre-Semitic origin.
Aratus was no astronomer, while Hipparchus was; and from the fact that the latter adopted, with but trifling exceptions, the constellation system portrayed by Aratus, it may be concluded that the system was already familiar in Greek thought.
The names in which Ptolemy differs from modern usage are: - Hercules (iv -yovaotv), Cygnus ("Opvts), Eridanus (IIora tos), Lupus (Onpiov), Pegasus (17r7ros), Equuleus ("Iirirov irporogi i), Canis minor (IIpoidwv), and Libra (XnXai, although "vyos is used for the same constellation in other parts of the Almagest).
The most brilliant star of this constellation, a-Aquilae or Altair, has a parallax of 0.23", and consequently is about eight times as bright as the sun; q-Aquilae is a short-period variable, while Nova Aquilae is a " temporary " or " new " star, discovered by Mrs Fleming of Harvard in 1899.
Such a constellation can be shown to occur at intervals of about 1,800 years and about those times the tide-generating force will be at an absolute maximum.
"ApicTos, the Bear, the northern constellation of Ursa Major), the epithet applied to the region round the North Pole, covering the area (both ocean and lands) where the characteristic polar conditions of climate, &c., obtain.
PLEIADES, ATLANTIDES or Vergiliae, in astronomy, a group of stars situated in the constellation Taurus.
Corona Borealis, also known as the Corona septentrionalis, and the Northern Crown or Garland, is a constellation of the Northern hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th cent.
Corona Australis, also known as Corona meridionalis, or the Southern Crown, is a constellation of the Southern hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus and Aratus.
In addition to Arcturus, the brightest in the group, the most interesting stars of this constellation are: e Bootis, a beautiful double star composed of a yellow star of magnitude 3, and a blue star of magnitude 62; Bootis, a double star composed of a yellow star, magnitude 41, and a purple star, magnitude 61-; and W.
The stars as a whole are found to be moving The Sofa, towards a point somewhere in or near the constellation Motion.
The fable was that this constellation was one of the arrows with which Hercules killed the vulture which gnawed the liver of Prometheus.
Its Latin names are Persea, Muller catenata (" chained woman"), Virgo devota, &c.; the Arabians replaced the woman by a seal; Wilhelm Schickard (1592-1635) named the constellation "Abigail"; Julius Schiller assigned to it the figure of a sepulchre, naming it the "Holy Sepulchre."
Thackeray), that is to say, not far from the star Vega in the constellation Lyra, and was moving thither at a rate of twelve miles per second.
But the price of the tractor would have plummeted, for a constellation of reasons.
There were rows of grey chairs and several white benches in the rear, a handful of tables next to yawning windows, and a wall of what looked like constellation maps.
The constellation and sign of the zodiac known as "the fishes" is treated under Pisces.
It is also a constellation of the southern hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th.
It is also a constellation, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.e.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.), and catalogued by Ptolemy, 25 stars, Tycho Brahe 25, and Hevelius 38.38.
Avri, opposite, and iipKTOS, the Bear, the northern constellation of Ursa Major), the epithet applied to the region (including both the ocean and the lands) round the South Pole.
Brighter stars of the constellation could be said even roughly to mark the equinox much before 1800 B.C.; during a long stretch of previous time the leading position belonged to the stars of Taurus.'
URSA MAJOR (" THE GREAT BEAR "), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere, supposed to be referred to in the Old Testament (Job ix.
She is closely connected with the old constellation worship and the religion of Samothrace, the chief seat of the Cabeiri, where she was generally supposed to dwell.
CANES VENATICI (" The Hounds," or "the GREYHounds"), in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere named by Hevelius in 1690, who compiled it from the stars between the older asterisms Ursa Major, Bodtes and Coma Berenices.
Accordingly, as soon as all the great planets had disappeared, a new constellation was perceived to have risen, and all the stars in it had been lighted by the enthusiasm of Brandes.
ARCTURUS, the brightest star in the northern hemisphere, situated in the constellation Bootes in an almost direct line with the tail Q' and rt) of the constellation Ursa Major (Great Bear); hence its derivation from the Gr.
This constellation has been known by many other names - Arcas, Arctophylax, Arcturus minor, Bubuleus, Bubulus, Canis latrans, Clamator, Icarus, Lycaon, Philometus, Plaustri custos, Plorans, Thegnis, Vociferator; the Arabs termed it Aramech or Archamech; Hesychius named it Orion; Jules Schiller, St Sylvester; Schickard, Nimrod; and Weigelius, the Three Swedish Crowns.
The first nine variables recognized in each constellation are denoted by single letters, after which combinations RR, RS, &c., are used.
The former are often called " Orion " stars, as all the brighter stars in that constellation with the exception of Betelgeux belong to the helium type.
Diseases and distrubances of the ordinary functions of the organs were attributed to the influence of planets or explained as due to conditions observed in a constellation or in the position of a star; and an interesting survival of this bond between astrology and medicine is to be seen in the use up to the present time of the sign of Jupiter 4., which still heads medicinal prescriptions, while, on the other hand, the influence of planetary lore appears in the assignment of the days of the week to the planets, beginning with Sunday, assigned to the sun, and ending with Saturday, the day of Saturn.
From the 6th century B.C. onwards, legends concerning the constellation subjects were frequently treated by the historians and poets.
See Ktientzle, Ober die Sternsagen der Griechen (1897), and his article in Roscher's Lexikon; he shows that in the oldest legend Orion the constellation and Orion the hero are quite distinct, without deciding which was the earlier conception.
In the Prologue to the "Parson's Tale" (so) there is, on the other hand, a mistake of Chaucer's own, which no judicious critic would think of removing, the constellation Libra being said to be "the moon's exaltation" when it should be Saturn's.
What is thus shown to be possible would, of course, be necessary if we went on, with the astronomer Kepler, to identify the star of the Magi with the conjunction of the planets Jupiter and Saturn which occurred, in the constellation Pisces, in May, October and December of 7 B.C.'