CONSTANTZA (Constants), formerly known as Kustendji or Kustendje, a seaport on the Black Sea, and capital of the department of Constantza, Rumania; 140 m.
When the Dobrudja was ceded to Rumania in 1878, Constantza was partly rebuilt.
The chief local industries are tanning and the manufacture of petroleum drums. The opening, in 1895, of the railway to Bucharest, which crosses the Danube by a bridge at Cerna Voda, brought Constantza a considerable transit trade in grain and petroleum, which are largely exported; coal and coke head the list of imports, followed by machinery, iron goods, and cotton and woollen fabrics.
A weekly service between Constantza and Constantinople is conducted by state-owned steamers, including the fast mail and passenger boats in connexion with the Ostend and Orient expresses.
In 1902, 576 vessels entered at Constantza, with a net registered tonnage of 641,737.
Constantza is the Constantiana which was founded in honour of Constantia, sister of Constantine the Great (A.D.
In regard to the Constantza inscriptions in general, see Allard, La Bulgarie orientate (Paris, 1866); Desjardins in Ann.
They are seldom found in large numbers at any great distance from the sea, and usually congregate in the principal towns and commercial centres, such as Adrianople, Constantza, Varna and Philippopolis; there are also detached colonies at Melnik, Stanimaka, Kavakly, Niegush and elsewhere.
In the Valcea department, besides many other iodine, sulphur and mud baths, there are the state-supported spas of Calimanescii, Caciulata and Govora, situated among some of the finest Carpathian scenery Most famous of all is Sinaia, the summer residence of the Court; while important springs exist at Lake Sarat, near Braila; at Slanic, in the Prahova department, where flooded and abandoned salt-mines are fitted up as baths; at the Tekir Ghiol mere, near Constantza; and at Baltzatesti (Baltate,itii), in the Neamtzu (Neamtu) department, a favourite resort of invalids from many parts of eastern Europe.
The chief .towns, with their estimated population in 1910, are Bucharest, the capital (300,000); Jassy, the capital of Moldavia (80,000); Galatz (66,000), Braila (60,000), Ploesci (50,000), Craiova (46,000), Botoshani (34,000), Berlad (25,000), Focshani (25,000), Tulcea (20,000), [Constantza (16,000), Giurgevo (15,000).
A direct line connects Jassy with Galatz; another traverses the Dobrudja from Constantza to Cernavoda, where it crosses the Danube and proceeds north-west to join the main line.
Besides river services, the state maintains lines of sea-going ships from Constantza to Constantinople and the Aegean Islands, and from Braila to Rotterdam.
At Megidia, a flourishing town of about 1 0,000 inhabitants, which sprang up after 1860 between Cernavoda and Constantza, the Tatars predominate.
The following Roman towns have been identified: (i) in the Dobrudja, Cius (Hirsova), Troesmis (Iglitza), Arrubium (Machin), Viodunum (Isakcha), Istrus (Karaharman), Tropaeum (Adam Klissi), Kallatis (Mangalia), Tomi (Constantza); (2) in Moldavia, Dinogetia (Tiglina); (3) in Walachia, Drobetae (Turnu Severin), Malva (Celeiu), Castra Nova (Craiova), Romula (Resca), Sorium (Roshiori de Vede), Pelendava (Bradesci), Acidava (Jenuseshti), Rusidava (Dragasani), Castro Traiana (Ramnicu Valcea), Arutela (Bivolari), Pons Vetus (Caineni), Komidava (Petroasa), Ramidava (Buzeu).
Two ramparts, known as Trajan's wall, can be discerned, one on either side of the railway from Cernavoda to Constantza; and there were bridges over the Danube at Turnu Severin and Turnu Magurele.