Angora is connected with Constantinople by railway, and exports wool, mohair, grain and yellow berries.
It is noted for the fine boxwood grown in the vicinity, is a port of call for Black Sea coasting steamers and carries on a considerable trade with Constantinople which might be increased were it not for the obstruction of the harbour by a bar.
It is said to have been written by the Neapolitan arch-presbyter Leo, who was sent by Johannes and Marinus, dukes of Campania (941-965) to Constantinople, where he found his Greek original.
The aristocratic Moslem families send their sons to be educated in Constantinople or Vienna.
Southern Albania and Epirus remained under Byzantine domination till 1204, when, after the capture of Constantinople by the crusaders, Michael Comnenus, a member of the imperial family, withdrew to Epirus and founded an independent sovereignty known as the Despotate of Epirus at Iannina; his realm included the whole of southern Albania, Acarnania and Aetolia.
The Albanian leaders, however, soon displayed a spirit of independence, which proved embarrassing to Turkish diplomacy and caused alarm at Constantinople; their forces came into conflict with a Turkish army under Dervish Pasha near Dulcigno (November 1880), and eventually the league was suppressed.
Recalled to Constantinople, he married Antonina, a clever, intriguing woman, and a favourite of the empress Theodora.
But his loyalty did not waver; he rejected the proposal and returned to Constantinople in 540.
The so-called Latin crusade of 1203 placed the imperial crown of Constantinople on the head of Baldwin of Flanders.
By the Black Sea and the vilayet of Constantinople, S.
The important silk industry, however, began to revive about 18go, and dairy farming is prosperous; but the condition of the vilayet is far less unsettled than that of Macedonia, owing partly to the preponderance of Moslems among the peasantry, and partly to the nearness of Constantinople, with its Western influences.
The main railway from Belgrade to Constantinople skirts the Maritza and Ergene valleys, and there is an important branch line down the Maritza valley to Dedeagatch, and thence coastwise to Salonica.
The terror of their name had long preceded them, and Bela, in 1235 or 1236, sent the Dominican monk Julian, by way of Constantinople, to Russia, to collect information about them from the "ancient Magyars" settled there, possibly the Volgan Bulgarians.
The Venetians, who contracted for the transport of the crusaders, and whose blind doge Dandolo was first to land in Constantinople, received one-half and onefourth of the divided Greek empire for their spoils.
When Constantinople fell in 1453, the old ties between Venice and the Eastern empire were broken, and she now entered on a wholly new phase of her history.
Cairoli succeeded in forming an administration, in which his friend Count Corti, Italian ambassador at Constantinople, accepted the portfolio of foreign affairs, Zanardelli the ministry of the interior, and Seismit Doda the ministry of finance.
At Constantinople, promoted by Mancini, Italian minister for foreign affairs, in the hope of preventing European intervention.
Financial considerations, lack of proper transports for an expeditionary corps, fear of displeasing France, dislike of a policy of adventure, misplaced deference towards the ambassadorial conference in Constantinople, and unwillingness to thwart the current of Italian sentiment in favor of the Egyptian nationalists, were the chief motives of the Italian refusal which had the effect of somewhat estranging Great Britain anc Italy.
Educated at the universities of Bonn and Heidelberg, he obtained a position in Florence through the influence of an Englishman, William Craufurd, but soon he entered the Prussian diplomatic service and was employed in Florence, in Constantinople and in Rome.
Many names and customs were introduced into his court from that of Constantinople; he proposed to restore the Roman senate and consulate, revived the office of patrician, called himself "consul of the Roman senate and people" and issued a seal with the inscription, "restoration of the Roman empire."
In consequence of the occupants of the thrones of Constantinople and Alexandria falling successively into opposite heresies, the question arose how " patriarchs " were to be judged.
That pope, although in Constantinople, refused to attend the sittings of the council.
In the East, Constantinople, from its principality, acquired special administrative pre-eminence, naturally followed, as in the case of " old Rome," by judicial pre-eminence.
The larger district answering to the civil " diocese "), or before the royal see of Constantinople, who shall do justice upon it.
The patriarch of Constantinople is enabled to exercise an extensive criminal jurisdiction over Christians (Neale, Hist.
988) settled at Kiev, and his province was part of the patriarchate of Constantinople, and appeals lay to Constantinople.
After the taking of Constantinople in 1452, the Russian metropolitans were always chosen and consecrated in Russia, appeals ceased, and Moscow became de facto autocephalous (Joyce, ubi sup. p. 379; Mouravieff, op. cit.
In 1587 the see of Moscow was raised to patriarchal rank with the consent of Constantinople, and the subsequent concurrence of Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem (ib.
Since the War of Independence, the kingdom of Greece has been ecclesiastically organized after the model of Russia, as one autocephalous " province," separated from its old patriarchate of Constantinople, with an honorary metropolitan and honorary archbishops (Neale, op. cit.
It has a cast-iron steeple (restored in 1854), on the top of which is a gold dragon which, according to tradition, was brought from Constantinople either by the Varangians or by the emperor Baldwin after the Latin conquest.
Both at Rome and Constantinople, therefore, the actual fast was but thirty-six days.
Some Churches still continued the three weeks' fast, but by the middle of the 5th century most of these divergences had ceased and the usages of Antioch-Constantinople and Rome-Alexandria had become stereotyped in their respective spheres of influence.
At Constantinople, too, three Sundays were added and associated with the Easter festival in the same way as the Sundays in Lent proper.
After the division of the Roman empire, Constantinople became the last refuge of learning, arts and taste; while Alexandria continued to be the emporium whence were imported the commodities of the East.
Among these was Benjamin of Tudela, who set out from Spain in i 160, travelled by land to Constantinople, and having visited India and some of the eastern islands, returned to Europe by way of Egypt after an absence of thirteen years.
He then made a journey through Persia and Syria to Constantinople, returning to Copenhagen in 1767.
St John Chrysostom died there on the way to Constantinople from his exile at Cocysus in the Anti-Taurus.
1216), and his Greek patrology to the fall of Constantinople (1453); but, while this large extension of the field is much to the advantage of his readers, it undoubtedly stretches the meaning of patrologia far beyond its natural limits.
About 1685) wrote the historical work Qore ha-doroth (Venice, 1746), using Jewish and other sources; Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah, kabbalist and student of Luria, wrote Qol be-ramah, a commentary on the Zohar and on the liturgy; Abraham Hayekini, kabbalist, chiefly remembered as a supporter of the would-be Messiah, Shabbethai Zebhi, wrote Hod Malkuth (Constantinople, 1655) and sermons.
Bishop, provincial synod, exarch of the diocese, patriarch of Constantinople (obviously the council could not here have been legislating for the entire church); forbidding clerics to be running to Constantinople with complaints, without the consent of their respective bishops; (7) confirming the possession of rural parishes to those who had actually administered them for thirty years, providing for the adjudication of conflicting claims, and guaranteeing the integrity of metropolitan provinces; (8) confirming the third canon of the second ecumenical council, which accorded to Constantinople equal privileges ('oa 7fp€ose7a) with Rome, and the second rank among the patriarchates, and, in addition, granting to Constantinople patriarchal jurisdiction over Pontus, Asia and Thrace.
The canon was universally received in the East, and was expressly confirmed by the Quinisext Council, 692 (see Constantinople, Councils Of).
In neither department did any Saracen, strictly speaking, invent anything; but they learned much both from Constantinople and from Persia, and what they learned they largely developed and improved.
They were often of enormous size; that at St Sophia in Constantinople was large enough for the ceremonial of coronation.
It contains breweries, tanneries, sugar, tobacco, cloth, and silk factories, and exports skins, cloth, cocoons, cereals, attar of roses, "dried fruit, &c. Sofia forms the centre of a railway system radiating to Constantinople (300 m.), Belgrade (206 m.) and central Europe, Varna, Rustchuk and the Danube, and Kiustendil near the Macedonian frontier.
Lake Ilmen and the river Volkhov, on which stands Novgorod, Rurik's capital, formed part of the great waterway from the Baltic to the Black Sea, and we know that by this route travelled from Scandinavia to Constantinople the tall fair-haired Northmen who composed the famous Varangian bodyguard of the Byzantine emperors.
Byzantine territory, threatened Constantinople with a fleet of small craft, obtained as consort for one of their princes, Vladimir I, (q.v.), a sister of the Byzantine emperor on condition of the prince becoming a Christian, adopted Christianity for themselves and their subjects, learned to hold in check the nomadic hordes of the steppe, and formed matrimonial alliances with the reigning families of Poland, Hungary, Norway and France.
As Christianity was brought into Russia from Constantinople it was only natural that the ecclesiastics, many of whom were Greeks, should admire Byzantine ideals and recommend them as models to be imitated.
They liked to consider themselves as the Lord's anointed, placed high above all ordinary mortals even of the most exalted rank; and when Constantinople fell into the hands of the infidel they began to imagine that, as the most powerful potentates of the Eastern Orthodox world they were the protectors of the Orthodox faith and the political heirs of the East Roman emperors.
Hitherto the highest authority in the Russian Church was the metropolitan, who was The nominally under the jurisdiction of the patriarch of patri- Constantinople, and as soon as Constantinople fell archate.
As in all previous insurrections the Poles proved stronger in the field, and Khmelnitski in desperation sought foreign assistance, first in Constantinople and then in Moscow.