Mg.; obtained by inserting n above the consonantal text in the Hebrew) is apparently intended to suggest that he was the son of that idolatrous king.
In Late Latin there was a tendency to this spirant pronunciation which appears as early as the beginning of the 2nd century A.D.; by the 3rd century b and consonantal u are inextricably confused.
When this consonantal u (English w as seen in words borrowed very early from Latin like wall and wine) passed into the sound of English v (labio-dental) is not certain, but Germanic words borrowed into Latin in the 5th century A.D.
The only possible consonantal nexus in purely Malay words is that of a nasal and mute, a liquid and mute and vice versa, and a liquid and nasal.
Its distinctly negro character is betrayed in the complete absence of grammatical gender, in its primitive vowel-system and highly-developed process of consonantal assimilation, softening all harsh combinations, lastly, in the peculiar infix j inserted between the verbal root and the plural pronominal object, as in ai tokki j-ir = I shake them.
In modern times attempts have been made to assign to it the consonantal value of U, but in English another symbol W is used for this, while V has received the value of the voiced form of F, which itself had originally a sound resembling the English W (see under F).
The alphabet of the Sabaean inscriptions is most closely akin to the Ethiopic, but is purely consonantal, without the modifications in the consonantal forms which Ethiopic has devised to express vowels.
The original form of the name was Nethunim, as in the Khetib (consonantal reading) of Ezra viii.
Caelebs from caelestium vitam ducens, b being put for consonantal u because a consonant cannot be put before another consonant; deterior from the verb detero, deteris; potior (adj.) from potior, potiris; arbor from robur; verbum from verberatus aeris, &c. Nor is he always right in Greek usages.
The Massoretic. 'This text was the work of a special gild of trained scholars called Massoretes (main 'Sys) or " masters of tradition " (n p 7 or less correctly n-m), 1 whose aim was not only to preserve and transmit the consonantal text which had been handed down to them, but also to ensure its proper pronunciation.
More important are those passages in which the Massoretes have definitely adopted a variation from the consonantal text.
Margin the Jewish interpretation) to be merely a translation of the Jewish interpretation; and to the present day it is usual, though obviously uncritical and wrong, to describe perfectly legitimate translations of the received consonantal text, if they happen to presuppose other vowels than those provided by Jewish tradition, as based on emendation; even in the English edition of Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old Testament (see below) the possibility of this unfortunate misunderstanding is not altogether removed.
The consonantal text sometimes betrays these in spite of the Massorah.
In order to avoid the uncertainty arising from the lack of vowels to distinguish forms consisting of the same consonants (for the vowel-points were not yet invented), the aramaising use of the reflexive conjugations (Hithpa`el, Nithpa`el) for the internal passives (Pu'al, Hoph`al) became common; particles were used to express the genitive and other relations, and in general there was an endeavour to avoid the obscurities of a purely consonantal writing.
The vowel i could become e as de = di, &c. Consonantal variation is most common.
Perhaps the most interesting of these consonantal interchanges is that occurring between n and the sibilants sh and z; ner = slier; na=za, which by some scholars has been declared to be phonetically impossible, but its existence is well established between the modern Chinese colloquial idioms. For example, Pekingese then, Hakka nyin, Fuchow niing, Ningpo zhing and nying, WOnchow zang and Hang all =" man."
Others are the sibilation of consonantal i and the assibilation of -di- to some sound like that of English j (denoted by B in the local variety of Latin alphabet), as in vidadu, " viamdo," i.e.
It is only by the most careful scrutiny, or the exercise of the most piercing insight, that the imperfectly spelled Egyptian has been made to yield up one grammatical secret after another in the light brought to bear upon it from Coptic. Demotic grammar ought soon to be thoroughly comprehensible in its forms, and the study of Late Egyptian should not stand far behind that of demotic. On the other hand, Middle Egyptian, and still mote Old Egyptian, which is separated from Middle Egyptian by a wide gap, will perhaps always be to us little more than consonantal skeletons, the flesh and blood of their vocalization being for the most part irretrievably lost.
The Egyptian system of writing, as opposed to the Coptic, showed only the consonantal skeletons of words: it could not record internal vowel-changes; and semi-consonants, even when radicals, were often omitted in writing.
The secondary value expresses the consonantal root of the name or other primary value, and any, or almost any, derivative from that root: as when ~ a mat with a cake upon it, is not only litp, an offering-mat, but also hip in the sense of conciliation, peace, rest, setting (of the sun), with many derivatives.
As already mentioned, the twenty-two symbols of the Phoenician alphabet indicate consonantal sounds only.
The confusion of (3 with v necessitated the invention of a new symbol B in the Cyrillic, E in the Glagolitic for b, while new symbols were also required for the sounds or combinations of sounds z (zh), dz, ï¿½t (sht), c (ts); c (ch in church), ï¿½ (sh), u, i, y (u without protrusion of the lips), e (a close long e sound), for the combination of o, a and e with consonantal I (English y) and for the nasalized vowels e, q (nasalized o in pronunciation) and the combinations je and ja (English yg, ye).
Many languages find the combination qu, when both sounds are consonantal (qw), difficult; q being the deepest guttural while u (English w) is a lip sound, the points of production are nearly as far separate as they can be.
In the .consonantal system we col 1 struck by the abundance of sibilants (s and sh, in three forms modification, z and zh) and nasals (five in number), and by the rer mplete absence of 1.