Hence it is not surprising that, in those more subtle forms in which energy cannot be readily or completely converted into work, the universality of the principle of energy, its conservation, as regards amount, should for a long while have escaped recognition after it had become familiar in pure dynamics.
It was long believed that work done against such forces was lost, and it was not till the r9th century that the energy thus transformed was traced; the conservation of energy has become the master-key to unlock the connexions in inanimate nature.
Newton had divined the principle of the conservation of energy, so far as it belongs purely to mechanics.
Matter and force (or energy) are infinite; the conservation of force follows from the imperishability of matter, the ultimate basis of all science.
Newcomb: "At the present time we can only say that the nebular hypothesis is indicated by the general tendencies of the laws of nature, that it has not been proved to be inconsistent with any fact, that it is almost a necessary consequence of the only theory by which we can account for the origin and conservation of the sun's heat, but that it rests on the assumption that this conservation is to be explained by the laws of nature as we now see them in operation.
The beginnings of modern thermochemistry, though made independently of the doctrine of the conservation of energy, are practically contemporaneous with the recognition of that law, and without it the science could scarcely have reached the degree of development which it rapidly attained.
Julius Thomsen was the first investigator who deliberately adopted the principle of the conservation of energy as the basis of a thermochemical system.
From the standpoint of the law of conservation of energy, the relation between chemical and thermochemical action bears the following aspect: - A given amount of any substance under given conditions possesses a perfectly definite amount of intrinsic energy, and, no matter what chemical and physical transformations the substance may undergo, it will, when it returns to its original state, possess the original amount of intrinsic energy.
The law may apparently be " a general rule " or " a tendency " which is liable to be " checked," or a particular case of the law of the conservation of energy.
By his insistence upon the use of the balance as a quantitative check upon the masses involved in all chemical reactions, Lavoisier was enabled to establish by his own investigations and the results achieved by others the principle now known as the " conservation of mass."
Assuming as an axiom that the centre of gravity of any number of interdependent bodies cannot rise higher than the point from which it fell, he arrived, by anticipating in the particular case the general principle of the conservation of vis viva, at correct although not strictly demonstrated conclusions.
Applying the principle of the conservation of internal energy, he demonstrates that for iron in a field of woo units and upwards the E.M.F.
From the earliest times the conservation of water has been one of the serious cares of the Arabs.
The conservation policy saved the animals that were at risk.
If the system is supposed to obey the conservation of energy and to move solely under its own internal forces, the changes in the co-ordinates and momenta can be found from the Hamiltonian equations aE aE qr = 49 - 1 57., gr where q r denotes dg r ldt, &c., and E is the total energy expressed as a function of pi, qi,.
This energy, therefore, comes under a different category from the energy for which the law of equipartition was proved, for in proving this law conservation of ' Very significant confirmation of this conjecture is obtained from a study of the specific heats of the elements in the solid state.
If Mr Roosevelt did not invent this term he literally created as well as led the movement which made Conservation in 1910 the foremost political and social question in the United States.
At the same time that the per capita consumption thus rose in 1907 to 5~6 tons, the waste was estimated by the National Conservation Commission at 3~0 tons per capita.
Petroleum, according to the report of the National Conservation Commission in 1908, was then the sixth largest contributor to the Petrol nations mineral wealth, furnishing about one-sixteenth eum.
The supply of oil in this area was estimated at from 15,000,000,000 to 20,000,000,000 barrels; and the National Conservation Commission of 1908 expressed the opinion that in view of the rapid increase of production and the enormous loss through misuse the supply cannot be expected to last beyond the middle of this century.
Of building-stone, clay, cement, lime, sand and salt, the countrys supply was estimated by the National Conservation Commission of 1908 to be ample.
An investigation was made in 1908 for the National Conservation Commission of the ore reserves of the country.
But, unfortunately for Fechner, the very opposite conclusion followed from the presuppositions of his parallelistic metaphysics, and from the Leibnitzian view of the conservation of energy, which he was the first in our time to use in order to argue that a physical cause cannot produce a psychical effect, on the ground that physical energy must be exactly replaced by physical energy.
Nevertheless, largely under the influence of the exaggeration of the conservation of energy, many psychologists - Wundt, Paulsen, Riehl, Jodl, Ebbinghaus, Miinsterberg, and in England Lewes, Clifford, Romanes, Stout - have accepted Fechner's psychophysical parallelism, as far at least as men and animals are concerned.
(c) Wren and Huygens further proved that the law of equal action and reaction, already experimentally established by the former, is deducible from the conservation of the velocity of the common centre of gravity, which is the same as the common velocity of the bodies, that is, deducible from the fact that their common centre of gravity does not change its state of motion or rest by the actions of the bodies between themselves; and they further extended the law to bodies, qua elastic.
He made experiments, simultaneously with Wallis and Wren, on the collision of hard spherical bodies, and his statement of the results (1669) included a clear enunciation of the conservation of linear momentum, as demonstrated for these cases of collision, and apparently correct in certain other cases, mass being estimated by weight.
The closing of ventilators (accompanied by syringing and damping of surfaces to produce a humid atmosphere) has for its object the conservation of as much solar heat as practicable.