The classification into epithelial organs, connective tissues, and the more specialized muscle and nerve, was largely due to him; and he proved the presence of neuroglia in the brain and spinal cord, discovered crystalline haematoidine, and made out the structure of the umbilical cord.
Filaria medinensis - the Guinea worm - is parasitic in the subcutaneous connective tissue of man (occasionally also in the horse).
It is probable that the parasite is then transferred to the alimentary canal of man by means of drinking-water, and thence makes its way to the subcutaneous connective tissue.
The adult worm, which is of extremely minute size, the male being only Fi l sth and the female s of an inch in length inhabits the alimentary canal of man and many other carnivorous mammalia; the young bore their way into the tissues and become encysted in the muscles - within the muscle-bundles according to Leuckart, but in the connective tissue between them according to Chatin and others.
Next the larvae make their way into the connective tissue in the pro-thorax, and ultimately bore a channel into the base of the piercing apparatus and come to rest between the hypopharynx and the labium.
The mesogloea in the hydropolyp is a thin elastic layer, in which may be lodged the muscular fibres and ganglion cells mentioned above, but which never contains any connective tissue or skeletogenous cells or any other kind of special mesogloeal corpuscles.
The epidermis contains numerous groups of sense cells; beneath the epidermis there is rarely (Kynotus) an extensive connective tissue dermis.
In some cases each pleural ganglion is connected with the opposite branch of the visceral commissure by anastomosis with the pallial nerve, a condition which is called dialyneury; or there may be a direct connective from the pleural ganglion to the visceral ganglion of the opposite side, which is called zygoneury.
In Carinella, Cephalothrix, Polia and the Metanemertines the two tegumentary layers with their different glandular elements are fused into one; a thick layer of connective tissue is situated beneath them (instead of between them) and keeps the entire cutaneous system more definitely separate from the muscular (fi g s.
The connective tissue of the integument and basement membrane imperceptibly merges into that which surrounds the muscular bundles as they are united into denser and definite layers, and this is especially marked in those forms (Akrostomum) where the density of the muscular body-wall has considerably diminished, and the connective tissue has thus become much more prominent.
It can then at the same time be observed, too, that the compact mass of connective tissue (" reticulum," Barrois) which lies between the muscular bodywall and the intestine is directly continuous with that in which the muscular layers are embedded.
CT, Connective tissue.
Albuminoids is the anatomical name given to albuminous substances forming the connective tissues.
The plexus of nerve-fibrils which underlie the ectoderm and are in places gathered up into nerves, and the great development of connective tissue, are worthy of notice.
The coils and branches of the tube are packed by connective tissue and blood spaces.
The entosternite was probably in origin part of the fibrous connective tissue lying close to the integument of the sternal surface - giving attachment to muscles corresponding more or less to those at present attached to it.
H, Epidermic cell-layer; mes, mesoblastic connective tissue; n, nerves; II, III, IV, V, depressions of the epidermis in each of which a cuticular lens will be formed.
Tiss, Connective tissue (mesomediately underlying the lens.
This strip is rapidly replaced, mainly by the connective tissue cells of the adjoining tissue growing across the temporary filled breach and firmly uniting the two cut surfaces.
After five to seven days we find the connective tissue cells taking the principal part in the building up of the new permanent tissue, for at this stage there is an active proliferation of the fibroblasts.
According to the hypothesis of Waldeyer and Thiersch there is perfect equilibrium between the normal epithelium and its supporting structure, the connective tissue, but with advancing age this balance is upset owing to the connective tissue gradually losing its restraining power.
Not only is this true of epithelial cells, but - the connective tissuecells of the supporting structure of cancerous growth, after repeated transplantation, may become so altered that a gradual evolution of apparently normal connective tissue into sarcomatous elements takes place, these giving rise to " mixed tumours."
- Chronic interstitial myocarditis, showing the muscle fibres in the heart wall being separated and becoming atrophied by a slow fibrous overgrowth of the connective tissue.
The connective tissue is supplied normally with a certain amount of these mucinoid substances, no doubt acting as a lubricant.
Adiposity or obesity occurs when we have an excessive amount of fat stored in the normal connective-tissue areas of adipose tissue.
These soluble salts combine with the albumins in the body, and are deposited as minute granules of silver albuminate in the connective tissue of the skin papillae, serous membranes, the intima of arteries and the kidney.
Hyaline degeneration is found in certain acute infective conditions; the toxins specially act on these connective-tissue cell elements.
It spreads forwards, affecting the supporting fibres outside the epithelium of the capillaries, and then passes to the connective-tissue fibrils of the veins.
Many other diseases formerly regarded as primarily diseases of the nervous system are not such; but, by means of agents either introduced into the body or modified there, establish themselves after the affinities of these in contiguous associated parts of the structure, as in vascular, membranous or connective elements, or again in distant and peripheral parts; the perturbations of nervous function being secondary and consequential.
Griesinger (1817-1868), Bevan Lewis - and in the separation from insanity due to primary disease or defect of nerve elements of such diseases as general paralysis of the insane, which probably arise, as we have said, by the action of poisons on contiguous structures - such as blood-vessels and connective elements - and invade the nervous matter secondarily.
The continued use of large doses of alcohol produces chronic gastritis, in which the continued irritation has led to overgrowth of connective tissue, atrophy of the gastric glands and permanent cessation of the gastric functions.
The long connective of the single stamen is hinged to the short filament and has a shorter arm ending in a blunt process and a longer arm bearing a half-anther.
- Pollination I, Flower visited by a humblebee, showing the projection of the curved connective bearing the anther from the helmetshaped upper lip and the deposition of the pollen on the back of the humble-bee.
2, Older flower,with connective drawn back, and elongated style.
4, The staminal apparatus at rest, with connective enclosed within the upper lip.
3, The same, when disturbed by the entrance of the proboscis of the bee in the direction of the arrow; f, filament; c, connective; s, the obstructing half of the anther.
The stomach is generally large; its wall consists of a layer of very large ciliated cells, which often contain fat globules and yellowish-green or brown particles, and outside these a connective tissue membrane; muscular fibrillae have also been described.
The liver cells, therefore, are entodermal, but the supporting connective tissue mesodermal from the septum transversum.
Ct, Interlobular connective tissue forming the capsules of the lobules.
Nevertheless the filament is a complete tube formed of chitinous substance and clothed externally by ciliated epithelium, internally by endothelium and lacunar tissue - a form of connective tissue - as shown in fig.
F.e., Frontal epithelium; l.f.e'., l.f.e"., the two rows of latero-frontal epithelial cells with long cilia; ch, chitinous tubular lining of the filament; lac., blood lacuna traversed by a few processes of connective tissue cells; b.c., blood-corpuscle.
But it has since been discovered that in the Protobranchia the cerebral ganglia and the pleural are distinct, each giving origin to its own connective which runs to the pedal ganglion.
Pedal and pleural on each side are connected by a pleuro-pedal connective Each pleural ganglion gives off a long nerve which supplies the viscera, and the two unite posteriorly below the intestine.
Is formed, which is called the mesoderm, and gives rise to the muscular and connective tissues to the vascular system, and to the excretory and generative organs.
Within this is usually a sheath of connective tissue, which surrounds a layer of circular muscles; the latter may be split up into separate bundles, but more usually form a uniform sheet.
The nerve cells of the higher vertebrata, unlike their blood cells, their connective tissue cells, and even their muscle cells, early, and indeed in embryonic life, lose power of Nervous multiplication.
A, Oral tentacles (28 to 32 in full-grown animals, 20 to 24 in half-grown specimens); B, praeoral hood or praeoral epipleur; C, plicated ventral surface of atrial chamber; D l, D 17, D26, gonads, twenty-six pairs, coincident with myotomes io to 36; E, metapleur or lateral ridge on atrial epipleur; F, atripore, coincident with myotome 36; G', G ' 5, G34, double ventral fin rays, extending from myotomes 37 to 52, but having no numerical relation to them; H, position of anus, between myotomes 51 and 52; I, notochord, projecting beyond myotomes; K7, K27, K62, myotomes or muscular segments of body-wall, 62 in number; L '°°, L230, L253, dorsal fin rays, about 250 in number, the hard substance of the ray being absent at the extreme ends of the body (these have no constant numerical relation to the myomeres); M, notochord as seen through the transparent myotomes, the thin double-lined spaces being the connective-tissue septa and the broader spaces the muscular tissue of the myotomes; N, position of brown funnel of left side (atrio-coelomic canal); 0, nerve tube resting on notochord.
- As has already been indicated, a solid subcylindrical elastic rod, the notochord, surrounded by a sheath of laminar connective tissue, the cordal sheath, lies above the alimentary canal in contact with its dorsal wall, and extends beyond it both in front and behind to the obtusely pointed extremities of the body.
Where there has been local mischief due to inflammation the dead leucocytes must be removed, and this is done either by their being converted into pus in one mass, and making their way through the tissues to the nearest surface, whether of skin or mucous membrane, from which it can be discharged, or they may undergo a process of fatty degeneration and absorption, leaving behind in some cases cheesy matter, in others hard connective tissue.
(Many such changes are usually grouped together under the heading of " inflammation " of varying degree--acute, subacute and chronic.) Degeneration and death of cells, haemorrhages, serous and fibrinous exudations, leucocyte emigration, proliferation of connective tissue and other cells, may be mentioned as some of the fundamental changes.