The extensive and valuable forests, of which 75% consist of coniferous trees, occupy 42% of the entire area.
Coniferous forest formations, e.g., of Pinus sylvestris, Picea f~
Md difficult to regard coniferous forests as a natural ecological group. At much higher altitudes, in the south-west of the Mediterranean region, forests occur of the Atlantic cedar (Cedrus atlantica).
On the other hand, the latter is rich in coniferous types beyond any country except Japan (A.
From that in the S., and must in turn be subdivided into two partsthe coniferous region and the region Df the oak forests-these being separated by a line drawn through Pskov, Kostroma, Kazan and Ufa.
Than this, and coniferous forests extend farther S., advancing even to the border-region of the steppes.
The coniferous forests of the north contain, besides conifers, the birch (Betula alba, B.
Of the coniferous region.
European plains - the tundras, including the Arctic islands, the forest region, especially the coniferous part of it, and the ante-steppe and steppes of the black earth region.
The forest region, and especially its coniferous portion, though it has lost some of its representatives within historic times, still possesses an abundant fauna.
On the other hand, the hare, grey partridge (Perdix cinerea), hedgehog, quail, lark, rook and stork find their way into the coniferous region as the forests are cleared.
Resin soaps are compounds of soda or potash with the complex acids (chiefly abietic) of which coniferous resins consist.
Engler's Versuch einer Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt (Leipzig, 1879-1882), we should have in Siberia (a) the arctic region; (b) the sub-arctic or coniferous region - north Siberian province; (c) the Central-Asian domain - Altai and Daurian mountainous regions; and (d) the east Chinese, intruding into the basin of the Amur.
(See also Cedar.) The cypress and cedar zone exhibits a variety of other leaf-bearing and coniferous trees; of the first may be mentioned several oaks - Quercus subalpina (Kotschy), Q.
" pine-marten," it does not appear to have any special preference for coniferous trees.
Only 57% of the area is occupied by arable land and pasture; forests, one-tenth of which are coniferous, occupy 38%.
The general description of the nature and resources of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt applies also to this principality, except that 62% of the whole is devoted to agriculture and pasture and 30% to forests, only about two-fifths of which are coniferous trees.
In the eastern forest region the number of species decreases somewhat from south to north, but the entire region differs from the densely forested region of the Pacific Coast Transition zone in that it is essentially a region of deciduous or hardwood forests, while the latter is essentially one of coniferous trees; it differs from the forested region of the Rocky Mountains in that the latter is not only essentially a region of coniferous trees, but one where the forests do not by any means occupy the whole area, neither do they approach in density or economic importance those of the eastern division of the country.
Larix), a name applied to a small group of coniferous trees, of which the common larch of Europe is taken as the type.
The larch, from its lofty straight trunk and the high quality of its wood, is one of the most important of coniferous trees; its growth is extremely rapid, the stem attaining a large size in from sixty to eighty years, while the tree yields good useful timber at forty or fifty; it forms firm heartwood at an early age, and the sapwood is less perishable than that of the firs, rendering it more valuable in the young state.
When well prepared for use, larch is one of the most durable of coniferous woods.
Resina, probably Latinized from Greek prpivri, resin), a secretion formed in special resin canals or passages of plants, from many of which, such as, for example, coniferous trees, it exudes in soft tears, hardening into solid masses in the air.
Starting from the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (west of Savona), the main chain extends first south-west, then north-west to the Col de Tenda, though nowhere rising much beyond the zone of coniferous trees.
True coniferous trees (Walchia) do appear at the top of the coal measures.
Lakes are numerous in the government of Suwalki, but are all small and mostly hidden in thick coniferous or birch forests, and their waters penetrate with undefined banks amidst marshes, sandy tracts and accumulations of moss-grown boulders.
Coniferous forests, consisting mostly of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch, cover large tracts in Mazovia in the north, extend across the Baltic lake-ridge southwards as far as the confluence of the Bug with the Narew, and join in the south-east the Polysie of the Pripet.
Oaks and beeches; farther in- Waldeck land, and especially east of the Reuss-Greiz Elbe, coniferous trees are the Reuss-Schleiz most prevalent, praticularly Schaumburg-Lippe .
On the boundary mountains the trees are mainly coniferous; in the interior oaks, elms, beeches and ashes are conspicuous.
The timber used in building is obtained from trees which m be classed under two heads: (1) Coniferous or needle-leav trees; (2) the non-coniferous or broad-leaved trees.
The timbers in the second class are obtained from non-coniferous trees, containing no turpentine or resin, and are given the general name of hard woods.
The same coniferous trees are common to both parts of the range.
Of the forests, about 38% are deciduous and 62% coniferous trees, and the greater part of the former belong to the government.
At least the coniferous forests which make up nine-tenths of California's woodland surpass all others known in number of species and in the size and beauty of the trees.
Americana), representing the common British species, but with a smaller bill, and the males easily recognizable by their more scarlet plumage, ranges from the northern limit of coniferous trees to the highlands of Mexico, or even farther.
Of the whole country 44% is under forest (mainly coniferous trees), and 50% is devoted to agriculture and pasture.
In the coniferous forests the black grouse, hazel grouse and willow grouse, capercailzie and woodcock are the principal game birds; the crane is found in marshy clearings, birds of prey are numerous, and the Siberian jay in the north and the common jay in the south are often heard.
The secondary wood of the shoot and root conforms in the main to the coniferous type; in the short shoots the greater breadth FIG.
Another departure from the normal is that in which the juvenile or seedling form of shoot persists in the adult tree; the numerous coniferous plants known as species of Retinospora are examples of this.
The long linear leaves of some species of Podocarpus, in which the lamina is traversed by a single vein, recall the pinnae of Cycas; the branches of some Dacrydiums and other forms closely resemble those of lycopods; these superficial resemblances, both between different genera of conifers and between conifers and other plants, coupled with the usual occurrence of fossil coniferous twigs without cones attached to them, render the determination of extinct types a very unsatisfactory and frequently an impossible task.
The abundance of petrified coniferous wood in rocks of various ages has led many botanists to investigate the structure of modern genera with a view to determining how far anatomical characters may be used as evidence of generic distinctions.
The occurrence of short tracheids in close proximity to the veins is a characteristic of coniferous leaves; these elements assume two distinct forms - (I) the short isodiametric tracheids (transfusion-tracheids) closely associated with the veins; (2) longer tracheids extending across the mesophyll at right angles to the veins, and no doubt functioning as representatives of lateral veins.