He represented New Jersey in the first and second Continental Congresses (1774,1775-1776), but left Philadelphia in June 1776, probably to avoid voting on the question of adopting the Declaration of Independence, which he regarded as inexpedient.
The construction of numerous unremunerative lines, and the free granting of concessions to government and other employees (and also of cheap tickets on special occasions for congresses, &c., in various towns, without strict inquiry into the qualifications of the claimants) will account for the failure to realize a higher profit.
The diplomatic developments that led to tijie intervention of Austria are sketched elsewhere (see EUROPE: History); in general the result of the deliberations of the congresses of Troppau and Laibach was to establish, not the general right of intervention claimed in.
Congresses of Aix-La-Chapelle >>
Apart from the extremists on Develop- one side or the other, frank reactionaries on the De ment of Right and Socialists on the Left, two main divisions political of opinion revealed themselves in the congresses of parties.
Funften internationalen Orientalisten-congresses zu Berlin (Berlin, 1882); also W.
Breda also derives some celebrity from the various political congresses of which it has been the scene.
In pursuance of the same object, he identified himself with a series of remarkable peace congresses - international assemblies designed to unite the intelligence and philanthropy of the nations of Christendom in a league against war - which from 1848 to 1851 were held successively in Brussels, Paris, Frankfort, London, Manchester and Edinburgh.
He was secretary to the congress of Vienna (1814-1815) and to all the congresses and conferences that followed, up to that of Verona (1822), and in all his vast knowledge of men and affairs made him a power.
Herzl, however, succeeded in assembling several congresses at Basel (beginning in 1897), and at these congresses were enacted remarkable scenes of enthusiasm for the cause and devotion to its leader.
But Louis always preferred arbitration to war, and the peace congresses of Nagyszombat (1360) and of Pressburg (1360) summoned by him adjusted all the outstanding differences between the central European powers.
In 1774 and 1775 he was president of the first and second Provincial Congresses respectively, and he shared with Samuel Adams the leadership of the Massachusetts Whigs in all the irregular measures preceding the War of American Independence.
Towards 1847 he took part in the political agitation in Italy, and presided over scientific congresses, notably at Venice, where he declared himself in favour of the independence of Italy and the expulsion of the Austrians.
Following the tradition of all preceding congresses, it was mainly a scramble for territory and power.
Kliiber, Acten des Wiener Congresses (9 vols.); Comte d'Angeberg, Le Congrbs de Vienne (4 vols.).
At the various congresses, from Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) to Verona (1822), therefore, he showed himself heartily in sympathy with the repressive policy formulated in the Troppau Protocol.
He published, besides many orations, a History of the Anti-Slavery Measures of the Thirty-Seventh and Thirty-Eighth United States Congresses (1865); Military Measures of the United States Congress (1868); a History of the Reconstruction Measures of the Thirty-Ninth and Fortieth Congresses (1868) and a History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America (3 vols., 1872-1875), his most important work.
Resolutions passed by international congresses or other congresses relating to agriculture or to sciences.
Other congresses were held at Frankfurt, again in London, and in 1853 at Manchester, where Richard Cobden and John Bright took part in the discussions.
At length in 1878 a congress was held at the Paris International Exhibition of that year, but it was not till the next Paris International Exhibition of 1889 that these international peace congresses became periodical.
Since then numerous congresses have been held, the seventeenth having sat in London in 1908, and the eighteenth at Stockholm in 1910.
These congresses have been supplemented by national congresses in ' See Annuaire du mouvement pacifaste pour l'anne'e 1910, published by the Bureau International de la Paix, at Bern.
Such congresses are doing admirable work in the popularizing of thought upon the numerous questions which are discussed at the meetings, such as compulsory arbitration, the restriction of armaments, private property at sea in time of war, the position of subject races, airships in war, &c.2 4.
The two Continental Congresses (1774, and 1 7751 781) met in Philadelphia, except for the months when Philadelphia was occupied by the British army and Congress met in Lancaster and York, Pennsylvania, and then in Princeton, New Jersey.
In his chief's most important work, the establishment of the Prussian Zollverein, Ancillon had no share, while the entirely subordinate role played by Prussia in Europe during this period, together with the personal part taken by the sovereign in the various congresses, gave him little scope for the display of any diplomatic talents he may have possessed.
He was one of the signers of the White Plains protest of April 1775 against "all unlawful congresses and committees," in many other ways proved himself a devoted loyalist, and wrote the Free Thoughts on the Proceedings of the Continental Congress (1774) by "A.
"The people," he said, "are the rightful masters of both congresses and courts, not to overthrow the constitution, but to overthrow the men who pervert the constitution."
Of all German states, with the exception of Prussia and one or two states which sympathized with her, was held in Vienna; and it was followed by several other congresses favorable to Austrian pretensions.
For the peace of Westphalia, Patter's Geist des westphalischen Friedens (1795) is useful; for the congress of Vienna Klaber's Acten des Wiener Congresses (1815-1819) and Le Congres de Vienne et les traites de 1815 precede des conferences de Dresde, de Prague et de Chatillon, suivi des Congres d'Aix-la-Chapelle, Troppau, Laybach et Verone, by Count Angeberg.
But the struggle with England had reached a crisis, and Virginia supported with zeal the revolutionary movement and took the lead in the Continental Congresses which directed the succeeding war (see United States).
Further congresses were held in London (1862), and at York (1864), when a body of rules known as the "York Rules" was agreed to.
A provisional treaty of peace was then drawn up and signed by General Iglesias and the Chilean representative, and this was finally ratified by the Chilean and Peruvian congresses respectively in April 1884.
Congresses, Hamburg, 1902, p. 97).
Akademie (I872, p. 275 seq.; 1873, p. 622 seq.; 1874, p. 133 seq.; 1875, p. 145 seq.; and 1878, p. 38 seq.); of Avicennas Persian poems, in Gottinger Nachrichten (1875, p. 555 seq.); and of Asadi and his munkart, in Persische Tenzonen, Verhandlungen des 5ten Orientalisten-Congresses (Berlin, 1882, Pt.
Besides the well-known works of Castren, which are a very rich source of information on the subject, Schiefner (St Petersburg academy of science), Donner, Ahlqvist and other explorers of the Ural-Altaians, as also those of the Russian historians Soloviev, Kostomarov, Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Schapov, and Ilovaiskiy, the following containing valuable information may be mentioned: the publications of the Russian Geographical Society and its branches; the Russian Etnographicheskiy Sbornik; the Izvestia of the Moscow society of the amateurs of natural science; the works of the Russian ethnographical congresses; Kostrov's researches on the Siberian Tatars in the memoirs of the Siberian branch of the geographical society; Radlov's Reise durch den Altai, Aus Sibirien; " Picturesque Russia" (Zhivopisnaya Rossiya); Semenov's and Potanin's "Supplements" to Ritter's Asien: Harkavi's report to the congress at Kazan; Hartakhai's "Hist.
P. Mercer, The New Jerusalem in the World's Religious Congresses of 1893; Minutes of the General Conference of the New Church (annual); Journal of the Annual Session of the General Convention of the New Jerusalem in the United States of America.