In 1848 he conceived the idea of a union, and after a campaign lasting a quarter of a century the Union of American Hebrew Congregations was founded (1873) in Cincinnati.
It disturbed the peace and order of the congregations, and threatened their safety.
Certain concordats deal with the orders and congregations of monks and nuns with a view to subjecting them to a certain control while securing to them the legal exercise of their activities.
Antoine, taken to the secret meetings of the persecuted Calvinists, began, when only seventeen, to speak and exhort in these congregations of "the desert."
These followed their ordinary avocations on week-days, but on Sundays preached to congregations in their own immediate neighbourhood, and hence were called local preachers as distinguished from travelling preachers.
The extent to which the employment of the local preacher is characteristic of Methodism may be seen from the fact that in the United Kingdom while there are only about 5000 Methodist ministers, there are more than 18,000 congregations; some 13,000 congregations, chiefly in the villages, are dependent on local preachers.
The university pulpit, indeed, was closed to him, but several congregations in London delighted in his sermons, and from 1866 until the year of his death he preached annually in Westminster Abbey, where Stanley had become dean in 1863.
The presbytery consists of all the ministers and a selection of the ruling elders from the congregations within a prescribed area.
It has oversight of all the congregations within its bounds; hears references from kirk-sessions or appeals from individual members; sanctions the formation of new congregations; superintends the education of students for the ministry; stimulates and guides pastoral and evangelistic work; and exercises discipline over all within its bounds, including the ministers.
The synod is a provincial council which consists of the ministers and representative elders from all the congregations within a specified number of presbyteries, in the same way as the presbytery is representative of a specified number of congregations.
The statistics of these and of sixteen others not formally in the alliance were 29,476 congregations, 26,251 ministers, 126,607 elders and 4,852,096 communicants.
Thus, although the congregations were Presbyterian, the civil government retained overwhelming influence.
From the beginning of the 18th century the greater number of the Presbyterian congregations became practically independent in polity and Unitarian in doctrine.
The Presbyterianism now visible in England is of Scottish origin and Scottish type, and beyond the fact of embracing a few congregations which date from, or before, the Act of Uniformity and the Five Mile Act, has little in common with the Presbyterianism which was for a brief period by law established.
In 1876 the union of the Presbyterian Church in England with the English congregations of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland gathered all English Presbyterians (with some exceptions) into one church, "The Presbyterian 1876.
There are in England fourteen congregations in connexion with the Church of Scotland, six of them in London and the remainder in Berwick, Northumberland, Carlisle and Lancashire.
This presbytery supplied ministers to as many congregations as possible; and for the remainder ministers were sent from Scotland.
At the Restoration, in which they heartily co-operated, there were in Ulster seventy ministers in fixed charges, with nearly eighty parishes or congregations containing one hundred thousand persons.
There were five presbyteries holding monthly meetings and annual visitations of all the congregations within their bounds, and coming together in general synod four times a year.
There were then in Ireland about a hundred congregations, seventy-five with settled ministers, under five presbyteries.
The United Presbyterian Church has a board of foreign missions (reorganized in 1859) with missions in Egypt (1853), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1909, 71 congregations, 70 ministers and 10,341 members), in the Punjab (1854), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1 909, 35 congregations, 51 ministers and 17,321 members), and in the Sudan (1901); and boards of home missions (reorganized, 1859), church extension (1859), publication (1859), education (1859), ministerial relief (1862), and missions to the freedmen (1863).
There were also a great many schools in the control of various religious congregations, but a law of 1904 required that they should all be suppressed within ten years from the date of its enactment.
In December 1797 he joined his brother and some others in the formation of the "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Home," in building chapels or "tabernacles" for congregations, in supporting missionaries, and in maintaining institutions for the education of young men to carry on the work of evangelization.
This was the "Little" or "Barebones Parliament," consisting of one hundred and forty persons selected by the council of officers from among those nominated by the congregations in each county, which met on the 4th of July 1653.
Paul encouraged missions, confirmed many new congregations and brotherhoods, authorized a new version of the Ritual, and canonized Carlo Borromeo.
Article 4 allotted the pontiff an annuity of 3,225,000 lire (~I29,ooo) for the maintenance of the Sacred College, the sacred palaces, the congregations, the Vatican chancery and the diplomatic service.
Asbury infused new life into the movement, and within a year the membership of the several congregations was more than doubled.
In 1782 he was reappointed to supervise the affairs of the Methodist congregations in America.
The elders are the first or oldest teachers of congregations, for which there is no regular bishop. They have charge of the meetings of such congregations, and participate in excommunication proceedings, besides which they preach, exhort, baptize, and may, when needed, take the offices of the deacons.
The government of the church is chiefly according to the congregational principle, and the women have an equal voice with the men; but annual meetings, attended by the bishops, teachers and other delegates from the several congregations are held, and at these sessions the larger questions involving church polity are considered and decided by a committee of five bishops.
Among the public buildings and places of interest are the three churches on the Green, built in 5854; Center Church (Congregational), in the rear of which is the grave of John Dixwell (1608-1689), one of the regicides; United (formerly known as North) Church (Congregational), and Trinity Church, which belongs to one of the oldest Protestant Episcopal congregations in Connecticut.
During this century the Benedictine houses in many parts of Catholic Europe united themselves into congregations, usually characterized by an austerity that was due to the Tridentine reform movement.
Two vigorous congregations have arisen in the United States.
The English congregation is composed of three large abbeys (Downside, Ampleforth and Woolhampton), a cathedral priory (Hereford) and a nunnery (Stanbrook Abbey, Worcester): there are besides in England three or four abbeys belonging to foreign congregations, and several nunneries subject to the bishops.
Within a few weeks :similar communities were formed at Leipzig, Dresden, Berlin, [[[Offenbach]], Worms, Wiesbaden and elsewhere; and at a `"council" convened at Leipzig at Easter 1845, twenty-seven congregations were represented by delegates, of whom only two or at most three were in clerical orders.
For two years Espartero ruled Spain in accordance with his Radical and conciliatory dispositions, giving special attention to the reorganization of the administration, taxation and finances, declaring all the estates of the church, congregations and religious orders to be national property, and suppressing the diezma, or tenths.
We must note, however, that the Baptist divines who were excluded from the Westminster Assembly issued a declaration of their principles under the title, " A Confession of Faith of seven Congregations or Churches in London which are commonly but unjustly called Anabaptists, for the Vindication of the Truth and Information of the Ignorant."
1 While all critics agree in tracing back this form to the earliest years of the 2nd century, and regard it as the archetype of all similar Western creeds, there is great diversity of opinion on its relation to Eastern forms. Kattenbusch maintains that the Roman Creed reached Gaul and Africa in the course of the 2nd century, and perhaps all districts of the West that possessed Christian congregations, also the western end of Asia Minor possibly in connexion with Polycarp's visit to Rome A.D.
The Christian faith had hitherto been maintained in a few small congregations scattered over the Roman Empire.
These congregations were provided with only the most indispensable constitutional forms ("Corpus sumus de conscientia religionis, de unitate disciplinae, de spei foedere").
And thus, within the large congregations where there was so much that was open to censure in doctrine and constitution and morals, conventicles were formed in order that Christians might prepare themselves by strict discipline for the day of the Lord.
Many of the small congregations had gone completely over to Montanism, although in large towns, like Ephesus, the opposite party maintained the ascendancy.