The land was acquired either by confiscation from disaffected states or in exchange for a lowering of tribute.
This was a period of military tribunals, dragooning, wholesale T Bach confiscation 'and all manner of brutalities.'
While Chrysostom disapproved of the execution of heretics, he approved "the prohibition of their assemblies and the confiscation of their churches."
He now fled to Russia, where he was interned at Kaluga, while at home he was condemned to confiscation and death as a traitor, and his unjustly accused mistress Magdalena Rudenschold was publicly whipped to gratify an old grudge of the regent's.
In 1867 King George had agreed to accept Prussian bonds to the value of about 1,600,000 as compensation for the confiscation of his estates in Hanover.
And arming of the slaves, the execution of prominent Southern leaders, and the wholesale confiscation of Confederate property.
Large confiscations of the estates in the county were made in 1586, and on the termination of the wars of 1641; and in 1666 the restoration of his estates to the 4th Viscount Mayo involved another confiscation, at the expense of Cromwell's settlers.
The vengeance of Henry was not satisfied by this judicial murder of his friend and servant; he enforced the confiscation of what small property More had left, expelled Lady More from the house at Chelsea, and even set aside assignments which had been legally executed by More, who foresaw what would happen before the commission of the alleged treason.
A court, largely composed of his antagonists, condemned him to death, but the empress reduced the sentence to lifelong imprisonment in Schliisselburg and confiscation of all his estates.
The grand pensionary, Olden Barneveldt, the leader of the Remonstrant party, Grotius and Hoogerbeets were arrested, brought to trial, and condemned - Olden Barneveldt to death, and Grotius to imprisonment for life and confiscation of his property.
In superintending the distribution of the Mantuan territory amongst the veterans, he used his influence to save from confiscation the property of the poet Virgil.
The union of the two orders, already suggested at the council of Lyons in 1245, was nominally achieved by the council of Vienne in 1311; but the so-called "union" was in reality the suppression of the Templars, and the confiscation of all their resources by the cupidity of Philippe le Bel.
The process was a simple one: any cardinal, nobleman or official who was known to be rich would be accused of some offence; imprisonment and perhaps murder followed at once, and then the confiscation of his property.
Through confiscation of money, and deposits in banks removed to Russia, cancellation of shares, destruction of private and public bonds, and loss of interest, a loss of 379,- 000,000 gold rubles was caused by Russia, and 6,000,000 marks by Germany.
Failure to pay them did not lead to confiscation, but they were collected by suit and distraint like any debt.
The fifteen penal laws which this emperor issued in as many years deprived them of all right to the exercise of their religion, "excluded them from all civil offices, and threatened them with fines, confiscation, banishment and even in some cases with death."
To meet the expenses entailed by his liberality and extravagance, Gregory resorted to confiscation, on the pretext of defective titles or long-standing arrearages.
In the time of Ezra the Jewish "magistrates and judges" among their ecclesiastico-civil functions have the right of pronouncing sentence whether it be unto death, or to "rooting out," or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment (Ezra vii.
On the 10th of October, that is, four days after the insurrection of women and the transference of the king and court to Paris, he proposed to the Assembly the confiscation of the lands of the church to the service of the nation, but on terms rather less rigorous than those in which Mirabeau (q.v.) carried the proposal into effect on the 2nd of November.
This corruption was fatally apparent in the army, the feudal basis of which was sapped by the confiscation of fiefs for the benefit of nominees of favourites of the harem, and by the intrusion, through the same influences of foreigners and rayahs into the corps of janissaries, of which the discipline became more and more relaxed and the temper increasingly turbulent.
It seems that representations of deities, and indeed any representations at all, were rare upon the polished walls of the great monuments of the fourth dynasty, and Petrie thinks that he can trace a violent religious revolution with confiscation of endowments at this time in the temple remains at Abydos; but none the less the wants of the deities were then attended to by priests selected from the royal family and the highest in the land.
The secular power, which shared in the proceeds of the confiscation of those who were found guilty of heresy, was ready to help in carrying out the judgments of the spiritual courts.
Many suits were thereupon entered against Hancock, which, if successful, would have caused the confiscation of his estate, but which undoubtedly enhanced his popularity with the Whig element and increased his resentment against the British government.
During the war between Marius and Sulla it withstood the latter's troops for two years in 82-80 B.C. As a result of its resistance Sulla carried a law for the confiscation of the land of those inhabitants of Volaterrae who had had the privileges of Roman citizenship. This, however, does not seem to have been carried out until Caesar as dictator divided some of the territory of Volaterrae among his veterans.
The prisoners were to be tried by military commissions, and the sole penalty was death with confiscation of property.
Probably the queen had more to do with the falsification of this rumour than Cecil, though he is said to have opposed in the parliament of 1555 - in which he represented Lincolnshire - a bill for the confiscation of the estates of the Protestant refugees.
A plausible excuse was found in the next year for issuing a sentence of confiscation and banishment against Falkes de Breaute.
The pope, who knew the situation, committed a visitation of the Society to Cardinal Saldanha, an intimate friend of Pombal, who issued a severe decree against the Jesuits and ordered the confiscation of all their merchandise.
He appointed a commission to consider the question of draining the valley of Mexico, which adopted the plan ultimately carried out in 1890-1900; suppressed a Clerical rising in Puebla (March 1856), which was punished by a considerable confiscation of church property; sanctioned a law releasing church land from mortmain, by providing for its sale, for the benefit, however, of the ecclesiastical owners (called after its author Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, brother of the subsequent president), and a new draft constitution, largely modelled on that of the United States (Feb.
Merlin's code abolished confiscation, branding and imprisonment for life, and was based chiefly on the penal code drawn up in September 1791.
France, like the States of the Church, was facing financial ruin; but France did what the government of priests could not: namely, saved the day by the confiscation and sale of ecclesiastical property.
He also advocated the Freedmen's Bureau bills and the Tenure of Office Act, and went beyond Congress in favouring the confiscation of the property of the Confederate States and "of the real estate of 70,000 rebels who own above 200 acres each, together with the lands of their several states," for the benefit of the freedmen and loyal whites and to reimburse, it was said, the sufferers from Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania, during which Stevens's own ironworks at Chambersburg had been destroyed.
On the 30th of August General Fremont by military order declared martial law and confiscation against active enemies, with freedom to their slaves, in the State of Missouri.
During the month of July his own mind reached the virtual determination to give slavery its coup de grace; on the 17th he approved a new Confiscation Act, much broader than that of the 6th of August 1861 (which freed only those slaves in military service against the Union) and giving to the president power to employ persons of African descent for the suppression of the rebellion; and on the 22nd he submitted to his cabinet the draft of an emancipation proclamation substantially as afterward issued.
In 1501) gave special directions to the archbishops of Cologne, Mainz, Trier and Magdeburg regarding the growing abuses of the printing press; in 1515 the Lateran council formulated the decree De Impressione Librorum, which required that no work should be printed without previous examination by the proper ecclesiastica' authority, the penalty of unlicensed printing being excommunication of the culprit, and confiscation and destruction of the books.
Arrested by order of the National Convention in 1793, he was acquitted, but was reduced to poverty by the confiscation of his possessions.
During Mehemet Alis absence in Arabia his representative at Cairo had completed the confiscation, begun in 1808, of almost all the lands be]onging to private individuals, who were forced to accept instead inadequate pensions.
The enormous increase of the royal revenue consequent upon the confiscation of the property of the Church could not fail to increase the financial stability of the monarchy.
Christian's finances were certainly readjusted thereby, but the ultimate gainers by the confiscation were the nobles, and both education and morality suffered grievously in consequence.
On the 24th of August three statutes abolished papal and prelatical authority and jurisdiction; repealed the old laws in favour of the church, and punished celebrants and attendants of the Mass - for the first offence by confiscation, for the second by exile, for the third by death.
Confiscation of property had been ' See M.
After a great political convulsion such as the Norman conquest, and the wholesale confiscation of landed estates which followed it, it was William's interest to make sure that the rights of the crown, which he claimed to have inherited, had not suffered in the process.
In 1843 the Certosa was restored to the Carthusians and was exempted from confiscation in 1866, but it has since been declared a national monument.
He served in the National House of Representatives in January - April 1816, and in1816-1818was minister plenipotentiary to Russia and special minister to Naples, where he attempted to secure indemnity for the losses to American merchants by seizure and confiscation during the rule of Murat in 180 0.
The confiscation of ecclesiastical property at the time of the Reformation affected many of the trusts of the companies; and they were compelled to make returns of their property devoted to religious uses, and to pay over the rents to the crown.
The chief motive for these accusations was no doubt the desire of amassing wealth,' since by the law of majestas one-fourth of the goods of the accused, even if he committed suicide in order to avoid confiscation (which was always carried out in the case of those condemned to capital punishment), was assured to the accuser (who was hence called quadruplator).
In Congress he joined the radical wing of the Republican party, advocated the confiscation of Confederate property, approved and defended the Wade-Davis manifesto denouncing the tameness of Lincoln, and was soon recognized as a hard worker and ready speaker.
Cromwell thoroughly approved of the enormous scheme of confiscation and colonization, causing great privations and sufferings, which was carried out.
From the general confiscation were exempted the buildings actually used for public worship, as episcopal residences or seminaries, &c., or which had been appropriated to the use of schools, poorhouses, hospitals, &c.; as well as the buildings, appurtenances, and movable property of the abbeys of Monte Casino, Della Cava dci Tirreni, San Martino della Scala, Monneale, Certosa near Pavia, and other establishments of the same kind of importance as architectural or historical monuments.
The ordinary laws, too, had been suspended; the fining and confiscation of newspapers had been resumed, and the " Cadets " had been forbidden to hold a congress.
But that political Lollardry was strong is shown by the proposal in the parliament of 1410 for a wholesale confiscation of ecclesiastical property.
But the admission of Christians into the Jewish fold was punished by confiscation of goods (357), the erection of new synagogues was arrested by Theodosius II.
After a peaceful period of a quarter of a century the Armenian subjects of Russia in Transcaucasia were filled with bitterness and discontent by the confiscation of the properties of their national (Gregorian) church by the Russian treasury.
His own violations of the treaties of Luneville and Amiens were overlooked; and in particular men forgot that the weakening of the Knights of St John by the recent confiscation of their lands in France and Spain, and the protracted delay of Russia and Prussia to guarantee their tenure of power in Malta, furnished England with good reasons for keeping her hold on that island.
But he protested energetically against tlae loss of the pope's temporal power in 1870, against the confiscation of the property of the religious orders, and against the law of civil marriage established by the Italian government, and he refused to welcome Victor Emmanuel in his diocese.
A confiscation bill was passed in August 1861 discharging from his service or labour any slave employed in aiding or promoting any insurrection against the government of the United States.
So long as the reserve was available it was drawn upon to supply the void; but when that also was exhausted recourse was had to expedients, such as the borrowing, or rather seizure, of the vakuf revenues (1622) and the sale of crown properties; then ensued a period of barefaced confiscation, until, to restore public confidence in some measure, state budgets were published at intervals, viz.
She employed the proceeds of the vast sums coming to her from the confiscation of the property of the suppressed Jesuit order in founding schools and colleges all over Hungary.
Tyler then formulated a number of fresh demands, including the confiscation of ecclesiastical estates and the institution of social equality.
Another resolution, of importance for the history of the treatment of heresy, was the canon which decreed that armed force should be employed against the Cathari in southern France, that their goods were liable to confiscation and their persons to enslavement by the princes, and that all who took up weapons against them should receive a two years' remission of their penance and be placed - like the crusaders - under the direct protection of the church.
It was he who in 1853 dictated the vigorous memorandum of protest against the confiscation by Austria of the property of Lombard exiles who had been naturalized in Piedmont.
Of the criminal law clauses, as many as 238 are taken up with tariffs of fines, while 80 treat of capital and corporal punishment, outlawry and confiscation, and to' include rules of procedure.
The last but one of the Grand Masters who reigned in Malta, de Rohan, restored good government, abated abuses and promulgated a code of laws; but the ascendancy acquired by the Inquisition over the Order, the confiscation of the property of the knights in France on the outbreak of the Revolution, and the intrigues of the French made the task of regenerating the Order evidently hopeless in the changed conditions of Christendom.