Schwenkfeld, whose gentle birth and courtly manners won him many friends in high circles, left behind him a sect (who were called subsequently by others Schwenkfeldians, but who called themselves "Confessors of the Glory of Christ") and numerous writings to perpetuate his ideas.
It was thought that martyrdom would atone for sin, and imprisoned confessors not only issued to the Churches commands which were regarded almost as inspired utterances, but granted pardons in rash profusion to those who had been excommunicated by the regular clergy, a practice which caused Cyprian and his fellow bishops much difficulty.
- Trinity Sunday, all festivals of Christ (except those connected with the Passion), festivals of the Blessed Virgin, of the Holy Angels and Confessors, of holy virgins and women (not being martyrs), nativity of St John the Baptist, festivals of the chains of St Peter and of his see (cathedra Petri), Conversion of St Paul, All Saints, consecration of churches and altars, anniversary of election and coronation of popes, and of election and consecration of bishops.
The next step was to force the confessors to accept their lax interpretation of the law; and this was accomplished by their famous theory of probabilism - first taught in Spain about 1580.
St Cyprian, speaking of the confessors who died in prison, wrote to his priests, "Denique et dies eorum, quibus excedunt, adnotate, ut commemorationes eorum inter memorias martyrum celebrare possimus" (Epist.
These clerics became the confessors in royal and noble houses, and were generally chosen from among bishops and other high dignitaries.
The confessors of the Gallican Church at Lyons were of opinion that communion ought to be maintained with the zealots of Asia and Phrygia; and they addressed a letter to this effect to the Roman bishop, Eleutherus.
It seems written to expose the corruption of domestic life in Florence, and especially to satirize the friars in their familar part of gobetweens, tame cats, confessors and adulterers.
Satan is bound 1 and cast into the abyss, and the kingdom of Christ and of the martyrs and faithful confessors established for a thousand years.
He has no serious preference for the people of Israel as such, but only for the martyrs and confessors, who shall belong to every tribe and tongue and people and nation (vii.
His pastoral character is recognized in the 1 Note the prestige of martyrs and confessors, the ways of true and false prophets in Mand.
The nearest equivalent in the ancient Church was the local and temporary African practice of restoring lapsed Christians to communion at the intercession of confessors and prospective martyrs in prison.
The most accepted modern theory is that it is merely a catchword surviving from a longer phrase which proclaimed how, during such Indulgences, ordinary confessors might absolve from sins usually " reserved " to the Bishop or the Pope.
He bestowed on them the church of St Andrea and conferred at the same time the valuable privilege of making and altering their own statutes; besides the other points, in 1546, which Ignatius had still more at heart, as touching the very essence of his institute, namely, exemption from ecclesiastical offices and dignities and from the task of acting as directors and confessors to convents of women.
Took the reins, their star was in the ascendant, and Jesuit confessors, the most celebrated of whom were Francois de La Chaise and Michel Le Tellier (1643-1719), guided the policy of the king, not hesitating to take his side in his quarrel with the Holy See, which nearly resulted in a schism, nor to sign the Gallican articles.
In the plan of the buildings and their decoration everything still remained subordinate to the high altar; but though on this and its surroundings ornament was most lavishly expended, the churches - wherever wealth permitted - were covered within and without with sculpture or painting: scenes from the Old and New Testaments, from the lives of saints, even from every-day life; figures of the Almighty, of Christ, of the Virgin Mother, of apostles, saints, confessors; pictures of the joys of heaven and the torments of hell; and outside, grimacing from every angle, demons and goblins, amusing enough to us but terrible to the age that set them there, visible embodiments of the evil spirits driven from within the sacred building by the efficacy of the holy rites.
In the cultus rendered to confessors, the authorization of the Church had long been merely implicit.
Cap. xxviii), speaks of "the holy fathers whom we have styled confessors, i.e.
But, as in the case of "saint," the right of declaring the holy dead to be "confessors" was ultimately reserved to the Holy See.
P.C. Scotland; Foxe's Acts and Monuments; Hay Fleming's Martyrs and Confessors of St Andrews; Cramond's Truth about Wishart (1898); and Dict.
And his Jesuit confessors had no doubt.
The seven books of miracles are divided into the De gloria martyrum, the De virtutibus sancti Juliani, four books of Miracula sancti Martini, and the De gloria confessorum, the last dealing mainly with confessors who had dwelt in the cities of Tours and Clermont.
Apostles, martyrs, confessors, virgins, and the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Both were dominated by their Jesuit confessors, and a Jesuit, D.
Many are the stories of martyrs and confessors who are believed to have lived in these troublous times, and their efforts were at last crowned with success, for in the century commencing with the reign of Bilamgur in 971 there took place " the second introduction of religion " into Tibet, more especially under the guidance of the pandit Atisha, who came to Tibet in 1041, and of his famous native pupil and follower Brom Ston.
For many years the works of Swedenborg and his followers were proscribed, and receivers of his writings fined or deprived of office, but in 1866, when religious liberty had made progress, the cause was again taken up; in 1875 the society of " Confessors of the New Church " was formed in Stockholm, and since 1877 services have been regularly held.
33-3 8); confessors (i.
The honour given to confessors is very conspicuous, and points back to an early date.
They speak of the ordination of bishops (the so-called Clementine Liturgy is that which is directed to be used at the consecration of a bishop, cc. 5-15), of presbyters, deacons, deaconesses, subdeacons and lectors, and then pass on to confessors, virgins, widows and exorcists; after which follows a series of canons on various subjects, and liturgical formulae.
But if any one of the confessors who is not ordained snatches to himself any such dignity upon account of his confession, let the same person be deprived and rejected; for he is not in such an office, since he has denied the constitution of Christ, and is worse than an infidel."
The Penitentials 5 are collections intended for the guidance of confessors in estimating the penances to be imposed for various sins, according to the discipline in force in the Anglo =ten - Saxon countries.
As penances had for a long time been lightened, and the books used by confessors began to consist more and more of instructions in the style of the later moral theology (and this is already the case of the books of Halitgar and Rhabanus Maurus), the canonical collections began to include a greater or smaller number of the penitential canons.
Gaume's Manual for Confessors, abridged and "adapted to the use of the English Church."
Pusey, Advice, F&c., being the Abbe Gaume's Manual for Confessors, &c. (Oxford, 1878); Carter, The Doctrine of Confession in the Church of England (London, 1885); H.
The first lay ministry since Edward the Confessors time came into office; Sir Thomas More became lord chancellor, and Anne Boleyns father lord privy seal; the only prominent cleric who remained in office was Stephen Gardiner, who succeeded Wolsey as bishop of Winchester.
First in the period of " enthusiasm," the prophets; then the martyrs and confessors; finally the ascetics.
"You deceived me in saying she was a woman," writes one of her confessors; "she is a bearded man."
[The name libellus has also been applied to another kind of document - to the letters given by confessors, or by those who were about to suffer martyrdom, to persons who had fallen, to be used to secure forgiveness for them from the authorities of the Church.