It condenses readily with aldehydes, yielding with formaldehyde, on the addition of.
Meyer, Ber., 1900, 33, p. 2580), and this latter compound condenses with hydroxylamine to form xanthone oxime.
Torray's observations on nitromalonic aldehyde, N02 CH(CHO)2,formed by acting on mucobromic acid, probably CHO CBr:CBr:000H, with alkaline nitrites; this substance condenses with acetone to give p-nitrophenol, and forms [I.3.5]-trinitrobenzene when its sodium salt is decomposed with an acid.
A-pyrone condenses with the benzene ring to form coumarin and isocoumarin; benzo-'y-pyrone constitutes the nucleus of several vegetable colouring matters (chrysin, fisetin, quercetin, &c., which are derivatives of flavone or phenyl benzo-y-pyrone); dibenzo--ypyrone is known as xanthone; related to this substance are fluorane (and fluorescein), fluorone, fluorime, pyronine, &c. The pyridine ring condenses with the benzene ring to form quinoline and isoquinoline; acridine and phenanthridine are dibenzo-pyridines; naphthalene gives rise to a-and /3-naphthoquinolines and the anthrapyridines; anthracene gives anthraquinoline; while two pyridine nuclei connected by an intermediate benzene nucleus give the phenanthrolines.
Note whether any moisture condenses on the cooler parts of the tube, a gas is evolved, a sublimate formed, or the substance changes colour.
Carbon is detected by the formation of carbon dioxide, which turns lime-water milky, and hydrogen by the formation of water, which condenses on the tube, when the substance is heated with copper oxide.
It is a thick yellowish oil boiling between 242° C. and 250° C. It condenses with acetone in the presence of caustic soda to a quinoline.
With ammonia, benzaldehyde does not form an aldehyde ammonia, but condenses to hydrobenzamide, (C 6 H 5 CH) 3 N 2, with elimination of water.
Silicon tetraiodide, Si14, is formed by passing iodine vapour mixed with carbon dioxide over strongly-heated silicon (C. Friedel, Comptes rendus, 1868, 67, p. 98); the iodo-compound condenses in the colder portion of the apparatus and is purified by shaking with carbon bisulphide and with mercury.
The latter reacts with chlorine to give silicon nonyl-chloride Si(C2H5)3 C2H4C1, which condenses with potassium acetate to give the acetic ester of silicon nonyl alcohol from which the alcohol (a camphor-smelling liquid) may be obtained by hydrolysis.
The zinc vapour produced descends through the pipe and condenses into liquid zinc, which is collected in a ladle held under the outlet end of the pipe.
In the morning the Tehama, as seen from the mountain tops, appears buried in a sea of white cloud; towards noon the clouds drift up the mountain slopes and cover the summits with wreaths of light mist charged with moisture which condenses on the trees and vegetation; in the afternoon they disappear, and the evenings are generally clear and still.
Trimethylamine, (CH3)3N, is very similar to dimethylamine, and condenses to a liquid which boils at 3.2-3.8° C. It is usually obtained from "vinasses," the residue obtained from the distillation of beet sugar alcohol, and is used in the manufacture of potassium bicarbonate by the Solvay process, since its hydrochloride is much more soluble than potassium carbonate.
It condenses with aldehydes and ketones to produce semioxamazones.
It was the fruit of twenty years' labour, and exhibits with a brevity of expression, which, it has been said, "condenses more matter into a line than can be extracted from pages of other writers," the results of his study.
The salt volatilizes (mostly in the form of a mixed vapour of the two components, which reunite on cooling), and condenses in the dome in the form of a characteristically fibrous and tough crust.
Diazo-Amines.-The diazo-amines, R N: N NHR I, are obtained by the action of primary amines on diazonium salts; by the action of nitrous acid on a free primary amine, an isodiazohydroxide being formed as an intermediate product which then condenses with the amine; and by the action of nitrosamines on primary amines.
On the other hand, it differs from the aliphatic aldehydes in many respects; it does not form an addition product with ammonia but condenses to hydrobenzamide (C 6 H 5 CH) 3 N 2; on shaking with alcoholic potash it undergoes simultaneous oxidation and reduction, giving benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol (S.
Cannizzaro); and on warming with alcoholic potassium cyanide it condenses to benzoin.
On account of the readiness with which it condenses with various compounds, benzaldehyde is an important synthetic reagent.
This compound condenses in alkaline solution with compounds containing the grouping - CH 2 - CO - to form quinoline or its derivatives; thus, with acetaldehyde it forms quinoline, and with acetone, a-methyl quinoline.
Together with the two parallel valleys of the Nerbudda and Tapti, which drain the flanks of its western half, it gives, at opposite seasons of the year, a decided easterly and westerly direction to the winds of this part of India, and condenses a tolerably copious rainfall during the south-west monsoon.
The reason for adopting this method is that the specific volume of a saturated vapour cannot be directly measured with sufficient accuracy on account of the readiness with which it condenses on the surface of the containing vessel.
As prepared by these methods it contains a relatively large amount of hydrogen, from which it can be freed by passing through a tube immersed in liquid air, when it condenses to a white solid.
It is a white powder, almost insoluble in water, and when volatilized, condenses in two crystalline forms, either octahedral or prismatic. It is insoluble in sulphuric and nitric acids, but is readily soluble in hydrochloric and tartaric acids and in solutions of the caustic alkalies.
For the universe and all its parts are only different embodiments and stages in that metamorphosis of primitive being which Heraclitus had called a progress up and down (6561 &v i Out of it is separated, first, elemental fire, the fire which we know, which burns and destroys; and this, again, condenses into air or aerial vapour; a further step in the downward path derives water and earth from the solidification of air.
If a drop of ether is held near the surface of water the vapour of ether condenses on the surface of the water, and surfacecurrents are formed flowing in every direction away from under the drop of ether.
It condenses with acids or acid chlorides, in the presence of dehydrating agents, to oxyketones, e.g.
In alcoholic solution it condenses with sodium acetoacetate to form (-methylumbelliferone, CtoH803 (A.
Many derivatives are known, thus ortho-amino-benzophenone, melting at 106° C., can be obtained by reduction of the corresponding nitro compound; it condenses under the influence of heated lead monoxide to an acridine derivative and with acetone in presence of caustic soda it gives a quinoline.
Pyrocatechin readily condenses to form heterocyclic compounds; cyclic esters are formed by phosphorus trichloride and oxychloride, carbonyl chloride, sulphuryl chloride, &c.; whilst ortho-phenylenediamine, o-aminophenol, and o-aminothiophenol give phenazine, phenoxazine and thiodiphenylamine.
CO 2 H,with sodium amalgam, by conversion of trimethylene bromide into the cyanide and hydrolysis of this compound, or from acetoacetic ester, which, in the form of its sodium derivative, condenses with j3-iodopropionic ester to form acetoglutaric ester, CH 3 CO CH(CO 2 C 2 H 5) CH 2.
It is completely decomposed by hydriodic acid at 140° C. It condenses with aldehydes (in chloroform solution) in the presence of phosphorus pentoxide to give dithienyl hydrocarbons (A.
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Ethane, when heated to this degree, splits up into ethylene and hydrogen, whilst ethylene decomposes to methane and acetylene, and the acetylene at once polymerizes to benzene, styrolene, retene, &c. A portion also condenses, and at the same time loses some hydrogen, becoming naphthalene; and the compounds so formed by interactions amongst themselves build up the remainder of the hydrocarbons present in the coal tar, whilst the organic substances containing oxygen in the coal break down, and cause the formation of the phenols in the tar.
The formation of the second class of bodies is a great loss to the gas manufacturer, as, with the exception of the trace of benzene carried with the gas as vapour, these products are not only useless in the gas, but one of them, naphthalene, is a serious trouble, because any trace carried forward by the gas condenses with sudden changes of temperature, and causes obstructions in the service pipes, whilst their presence in the tar means the loss of a very large proportion of the illuminating constituents of the gas.
The main difficulty which the condenser ought to overcome and upon which its efficiency should depend is the removal of naphthalene; this compound, which is present in the gas, condenses on cooling to a solid which crystallizes out in the form of white flakes, and the trouble caused by pipe stoppages in the works as well as in the district supplied is very considerable.
The condenser, by effecting the condensation of water vapour, also brings about the deposition of solid naphthalene, apart from that which naturally condenses owing to reduction of temperature.
It condenses under the influence of sulphuric acid to form dodecahydrotriphenylene, C H and a mixture of ketones (C. Mannul, Ber., 1907, 40, p. 153).
Beryllium oxide, beryllia or glucina, BeO, is a very hard white powder which can be melted and distilled in the electric furnace, when it condenses in the form of minute hexagonal crystals.
It condenses with acetic anhydride to form a methyldiphenyl triazine, acetamide being also formed; with acetyl-acetone to form dimethylphenyl pyrimidine (A.
It is a liquid of boiling point 136° C. It condenses readily with aniline to give ay-dimethyl quinoline.