The condenser commonly used is an old retort.
Some crystallizers are made entirely cylindrical, and are connected to the condenser of the vacuum pan; in order to maintain a partial vacuum in them, some are fitted with cold-water pipes to cool them and with steam pipes to heat them, and some are left open to the atmosphere at the top. But the efficiency of all depends on the process of almost imperceptible yet continuous evaporation and the methodical addition of syrup, and not on the idiosyncrasies of the experts who manage them; and there is no doubt that in large commercial processes of manufacture the simpler the apparatus used for obtaining a desired result, and the more easily it is understood, the better it will be for the manufacturer.
When the key is released the condensers and cables at once begin to return to zero potential, and if the key is depressed and released several times in rapid succession the cable is divided into sections of varying potential, which travel rapidly towards the receiving end, and indicate their arrival there by producing corresponding fluctuations in the charge of the condenser C3.
The idea was that variations of the primary current would create electromotive force in the secondary circuit which would act through the air condenser formed by the two plates.
Of a condenser produces an electric spark which under proper conditions creates an effect propagated out into space as an electric wave.
In any case the antenna serves as one surface of a condenser, the other surface of which is the earth.
In this case a closed condenser circuit is formed with a battery of Leyden jars, an inductance coil and a spark gap, and oscillations are excited in it by discharges created across the spark gap by an induction coil or transformer.
One end of the inductance coil is connected to the earth, and some other point on the closed condenser circuit to an antenna of appropriate length.
In many cases additional condensers or inductance coils are inserted in various places so that the arrangement is somewhat disguised, but by far the larger part of the electric wave wireless telegraphy in 1907 was effected by transmitters having antennae either inductively or directly coupled to a closed condenser circuit containing a spark gap.
If the direct coupling is adopted then the lower end of the antenna is connected directly to the condenser circuit.
Jars or of Leyden panes immersed in oil or some form of air condenser, and the inductance coil or primary circuit of the oscillation transformer consists of a few turns of highly insulated wire wound on a frame and immersed in oil.
The transformer T has its secondary or high-pressure terminals connected to spark balls S1, which are also connected by a circuit consisting of a large glass plate condenser C, and the primary circuit of an air-core transformer called an oscillation transformer.
The secondary circuit of this last is either connected between an aerial A and the earth E, or it may be again in turn connected to a second pair of spark balls and these again to a second condenser oscillation transformer and the aerial A.
In order to produce electric oscillations in the system, the first or alternating current transformer must charge the condenser connected to its secondary terminals, but must not produce a permanent electric arc between the balls.
Various devices have been suggested for extinguishing the arc and yet allowing the condenser oscillatory discharge to take place.
The impedance of the primary or alternator circuit is so adjusted that when both the chokers are in circuit the current flowing is not sufficient to charge the condensers; but when one choker is short-circuited the impedance is reduced so that the condenser is charged, but the alternating arc is not formed.
Adjust the frequency so that it has the value of the normal time period of the circuit formed of the condenser and transformer secondary circuit, and thus it is possible to obtain condenser oscillatory discharges free from any admixture with alternating current arc. In this manner the condenser discharge can be started or stopped at pleasure, and long and short discharges made in accordance with the signals of the Morse FIG.
In the case of transmitters constructed as above described, in which the effective agent in producing the electric waves radiated is the sudden discharge of a condenser, it should be noticed that what is really sent out is a train of damped or decadent electric waves.
This last circuit has a natural frequency of its own which is numerically measured by I/27r-!(CL), where C is the capacity of the condenser and L is the inductance of the circuit.
- A, antenna; P S, jigger or oscillation transformer; C, condenser; 0, Fleming oscillation valve; B, working battery; T, telephone; R, rheostat; E, earth-plate.
His transmitter consists of a nearly closed oscillating circuit comprising a condenser or battery of Leyden jars, a spark gap, and the primary coil of an oscillation transformer consisting of one turn of thick wire wound on a wooden frame.
These two circuits are syntonized so that the closed or condenser circuit and the open or antenna circuit are adjusted to have, when separate, the same natural electrical time of vibration.
The secondary circuit of this transformer is cut in the middle and has a condenser inserted in it, and its ends are connected to the sensitive metallic filings tube or coherer as shown in fig.
To the outer end of this lateral wire a condenser was attached and the coherer inserted between the condenser and the earth.
When the methods for effecting this had been worked out practically it finally led to the inventions of Slaby, Braun and others being united into a system called the Telefunken system, which, as regards the transmitter, consisted in forming a closed oscillation circuit comprising a condenser, spark gap and inductance which at one point was attached either directly or through a condenser to the earth or to an equivalent balancing capacity, and at some other point to a suitably tuned antenna.
The receiving arrangements comprised also an open or antenna circuit connected directly with a closed condenser-inductance circuit, but in place of the spark gap in the transmitter an electrolytic receiver was inserted, having in connexion with it as indicator a voltaic cell and telephone.
In the same way the arrangements finally elaborated by Lodge and Muirhead consisted of a direct coupled antenna and nearly closed condenser circuit, and a similar receiving circuit containing as a detector the steel wheel revolving on oily mercury which actuated a siphon recorder writing signals on paper tape.
With wireless telegraph transmitters, in which the oscillatory discharge of a condenser is used to create oscillations in an antenna, labours under the disadvantage that the time occupied by the oscillations is a very small fraction of the total time of actuation.
Thus, for instance, when using an induction coil or transformer to charge a condenser, it is not generally convenient to make more than 50 discharges per second, but each of these may create a train of oscillations consisting of, say, 20 to 50 waves.
The condenser method of making oscillations is analogous to the production of air vibrations by twanging a harp string at short intervals.
Across the arc is a transverse or radial magnetic field, and the electrodes are connected by an oscillatory circuit consisting of a condenser and inductance.
The capacity of the condenser is then altered until the maximum current, as indicated by a hot wire ammeter, is produced in the circuit.
When this is the case the amplitude of the potential difference of the surfaces of the tubular condenser becomes a maximum, and this is indicated by connecting a vacuum tube filled with neon to the surfaces of the condenser.
Thomson (Lord Kelvin) observed in 1863 3 that when a condenser is charged or discharged, a sharp click is heard, and a similar observation was made by Cromwell F.
Varley, who proposed to make use of it in a telegraphic receiving instrument.4 In Dolbear's instrument one plate of a condenser was a flexible diaphragm, connected with the telephone line in such a way that the varying electric potential produced by the action of the transmitting telephone caused an increased or diminished charge in the condenser.
This alteration of charge caused a corresponding change in the mutual attraction of the plates of the condenser; hence the flexible plate was made to copy the vibrations of the diaphragm of the transmitter.
The top of the still had a removable head, connected with a condenser consisting of a copper worm in a barrel of water.
The stills were formerly completely bricked in, so that the vapours should be kept fully heated until they escaped to the condenser, but since the introduction of the " cracking process," the upper part has usually been left exposed to the air.
The process patented by Dewar and Redwood in 1889 consists in the use of a suitable still and condenser in free communication with each other - i.e.
Without any valve between them - the space in the still and condenser not occupied by liquid being charged with air, carbon dioxide or other gas, under the required pressure, and the condenser being provided with a regulated outlet for condensed liquid.
An objectionable feature of the system of allowing the vapour to escape from the still to the condenser through a loaded valve, viz: the irregularity of the distillation, is thus removed, and the benefits of regular vaporization and condensation under high pressure are obtained.
The steam operates by carrying the vapours away to the condenser as fast as they are generated, the injury to the products resulting from their remaining in contact with the highly-heated surface of the still being thus prevented.
The vapours from the still pass through a condenser into a receiver, which is in communication with the exhauster.
In regard to methods and apparatus, mention should be made of his improvements in the technique of organic analysis, his plan for determining the natural alkaloids and for ascertaining the molecular weights of organic bases b y means of their chloroplatinates, his process for determining the quantity of urea in a solution - the first step towards the introduction of precise chemical methods into practical medicine - and his invention of the simple form of condenser known in every laboratory.
The apparatus consists of three parts: - the "retort" or "still," in which the substance is heated; the "condenser," in which the vapours are condensed; and the "receiver," in which the condensed vapours are collected.
In modern times the laboratory practice of distillation was greatly facilitated by the introduction of the condenser named after Justus von Liebig; A.
Frankland introduced the "reflux condenser," i.e.
A cylinder condenser has its inner surface insulated and charged to a high positive or negative potential.
Hence he inferred that the amount of heat given up to the condenser of an engine when the engine is doing work must be less than when the same amount of steam is blown through the engine without doing any work.
These two circuits are so adjusted that the closed oscillation circuit, consisting of the condenser, primary coil 1 See German Patent of F.
If, however, the antenna is inductively or directly coupled to a condenser circuit of large capacity then the amount of energy which can be stored up before discharge takes place is very much greater, and hence can be drawn upon to create prolonged or slightly damped trains of waves.
In later improvements the secondary circuit of this jigger was interrupted by a small condenser, and the terminals of the relay and local cell were connected to the plates of this condenser, whilst the sensitive tube was attached to the outer ends of the secondary circuit.
Owing to the fact that at temperatures between its melting and boiling point zinc has a strong affinity for iron, it is often contaminated by the scraper while being drawn from the condenser, as is shown by the fact that the scraper wears away rapidly.
This condenser is charged electrically and then suddenly discharged and violent electrical oscillations are set up in it, that is to say, electricity rushes to and fro between the antenna and the earth.
Marconi 2 imparted practical utility to this idea by tuning the two circuits together, and the arrangement now employed is as follows: - A suitable condenser C, or battery of Leyden jars, has one coating connected to one spark ball and the other through a coil of one turn with the other spark ball of a discharger S.
Also another condenser was added in parallel with the sensitive tube.
An antenna of suitable capacity and inductance to a nearly closed electric circuit consisting of a condenser of large capacity, a spark gap and an inductance of low resistance.
Duddell discovered in 1900 that if a continuous current carbon arc had its carbon electrodes connected by a condenser in series with an inductance, then under certain conditions oscillations were excited in this condenser circuit which appeared to be continuous.
2 In Donitz's wave meter a condenser of variable capacity is associated with inductance coils of various sizes, and the wave meter is placed near the antenna so that its inductance coils have induced currents created in them.
Now if the values of the rheostat and condenser are adjusted so as to make the rise and fall of the outgoing current through both windings of the relay exactly equal, then no effect is produced on the armature of the relay, as the two currents neutralize each other's magnetizing effect.
In actual practice the receiving instrument is so sensitive that the difference of potential between the two coatings of the condenser C3 produced by the incoming signal is only a very small fraction of the potential of the battery B.