The next following instalments of vapour, getting diffused throughout a large mass of relatively cold gas, condense into a kind of "snow," known in commerce and valued as "flowers of sulphur" (fibres sulphuris).
More usually, however, the ring might be expected not to be uniform, and, therefore, to condense in some parts more rapidly than in others.
Should any one be sceptical as to the sufficiency of these laws to account for the present state of things, science can furnish no evidence strong enough to overthrow his doubts until the sun shall be found growing smaller by actual measurement, or the nebulae be actually seen to condense into stars and systems."
Organic acids also condense with alcohols to form similar compounds: the fats, waxes, and essential oils are naturally occurring substances of this class.
The homologues of acetylene condense more readily; thus allylene, CH: C CH 3, and crotonylene, CH 3.0: C CH 3, yield trimethyland hexamethyl-benzene under the influence of sulphuric acid.
Certain a-diketones condense to form benzenoid quinones, two molecules of the diketone taking part in the reaction; thus diacetyl, CH 3 CO CO CH 3, yields p-xyloquinone, C 6 H 2 (CH 3) 2 0 2 (Ber., 1888, 21, p. 1411), and acetylpropionyl, CH 3 CO CO C 2 H 5, yields duroquinone, or tetramethylquinone, C 6 (CH 3) 4 0 2, Oxymethylene compounds, characterized by the grouping > C:CH(OH), also give benzene derivatives by hydrolytic condensation between three molecules; thus oxymethylene acetone, or formyl acetone, CH 3 CO.
The aldehydes condense readily with acetoacetic ester in the presence of ammonia, to pyridines (see Pyridine), whilst 0.
These substances condense to form tetra-aminotriphenylmethane, which, on heating with acids, loses ammonia and yields diaminodihydrophenylacridine, from which benzoflavin is obtained by oxidation.
Glycerin appears to yield, on mild oxidation, an aldehyde, CH20H CH(OH) CHO, and a ketone, CH 2 OH CO CH 2 OH, and these condense as shown in the equation: CH 2 OH CH (OH) CHO + CH 2 OH [[Coch 2 Oh = Ch20h Ch(Oh) Ch(Oh) Ch(Oh) Co.Ch20h+H20]].
The ortho-compounds condense to azimido benzenes, the metacompounds yield azo-dyestuffs, and the para-compounds yield bis-diazo compounds of the type XN2ï¿½C6H4ï¿½N2X.
When the vapours readily condense to a solid form the condensing plant may take the form of large chambers; such conditions prevail in the manufacture of arsenic, sulphur and lampblack: in the latter case (which, however, is not properly one of distillation) the chamber is hung with sheets on which the pigment collects.
The more volatile vapours pass over to the condensing plant, while the less volatile ones condense in the bulbs and are returned to the column at varying heights by means of connecting tubes.
Apart from his idylls and his elegies, Chenier also experimented from early youth in didactic and philosophic verse, and when he commenced his Hermes in 1783 his ambition was to condense the Encyclopedia of Diderot into a poem somewhat after the manner of Lucretius.
On the other hand, pseudo-Jonathan shows a tendency to condense those additions which it has in common with the Fragmentary Targum: in particular he omits all quotations from Scripture.
In western Washington, where the ocean greatly influences the temperature and the mountains condense the moisture of vapour-bearing winds, the climate is equable and moist.
The amount of precipitation is greater in the north-west and on the mountains, because in the one case the mountains of lower elevation are a less obstruction to the moisturebearing winds from the west, and in the other the mountains condense the moisture; the mountains which stand in isolated groups upon the plains are frequently in summer the focus of local thunder showers.
The mountains condense the moisture brought by the west winds, and the yearly amount of rain varies from So to 120 in.
The object of crossing (croissage) is to round, smooth and condense the separate filaments of each set into one strand, and as the surface of the filaments is gummy and adhesive it is found on drying that they have agglutinated into a compact single fibre of raw silk.
Hantzsch has shown that aldehydes condense with aceto-acetic ester and ammonia to produce the homologues of pyridine, thus: R R [[Rooc Ch 2 Cho Ch 2 Coor Rooc C - Ch - C Coor]] + + 1 = Ii II +3H20.
If we attempt to change either the temperature or the pressure ice will melt, water will evaporate or vapour condense until one or other of the phases has vanished.
Hence if two vessels, one filled with solvent and one with solution, be placed side by side in an exhausted chamber, vapour will evaporate from the solvent and condense on the solution.
They also condense with aldehydes, under the influence of alkalis or sodium ethylate (L.
They condense with orthodiamines to form quinoxalines (0.
Owing to this, it is practically impossible to condense the gaseous hydrochloric acid into the commercial acid, although this acid may be obtained sufficiently strong to be worked up in the Weldon chlorine process (see below, 3).
When its deleterious effects upon vegetation, building materials, &c., became better known, and when at the same time an outlet had been found for moderate quantities of hydrochloric acid, most factories made more or less successful attempts to " condense " the gas by absorption in water.
The mixture of hydrochloric acid and air is taken directly from the " decomposing-pan " of an ordinary salt-cake furnace, is first cooled down in pipes sufficiently to condense most of the moisture present 1 ?i; \'\` (together with about 8% of the hydrochloric acid), and then passed through a cast-iron superheater and from this into the " decomposer."
From this point we must condense farther description into critical remarks on a few typical modern instruments.
Starting from a widely diffused nebula, more or less uniform, we find that, in consequence of gravitational instability, it will tend to condense about a number of nuclei.
The vapourmolecules of the solvent are free to pass through the semi-permeable membrane, and will continue to condense in the solution until the hydrostatic pressure is so raised as to produce equality of vapour-pressure.
The method commonly adopted in measuring the latent heat of a vapour is to condense the vapour at saturation-pressure in a calorimeter.
His method consisted in using magnesia instead of lime for the recovery of the ammonia (which occurs in the form of ammonium chloride in the ammonia-soda process), and then by evaporating the magnesium chloride solution and heating the residue in steam, to condense the acid vapours and so obtain hydrochloric acid.
The esters of the acid condense readily with aromatic aldehydes and ketones to form y-disubstituted itaconic acids and y-alkylen pyrotartaric acids (H.
3, 4) does little more than condense Herodotus's narrative.