She wrote her name in the condensation on the side of her tea glass.
Malonic acid, as well as its esters, is characterized by the large number of condensation products it can form.
Like Anaximenes, he believed air to be the one source of all being, and all other substances to be derived from it by condensation and rarefaction.
The formaldehyde at once undergoes a process of condensation oi- polymerization by the protoplasm of the plastid, while the hydrogen peroxide is said to be decomposed into water and free oxygen by another agency in the cell, of the nature of one of the enzymes of which we shall speak later.
By the action of hydroxylamine or phenylhydrazine on aldehydes or ketones, condensation occurs between the carbonyl oxygen of the aldehyde or ketone and the amino group of the hydroxylamine or hydrazine.
In using benzoyl chloride in this reaction the condensation is found to proceed better if a little ammonium chloride be added: 2C6H5 CNd-C6H5.0001 C6H5 C Cl OC C6H5 6 H 5 N C(C6H5):N The cyanidines behave as weak bases.
As a literary composition they do not rank very high, which may be due partly to the author's years, partly to the inequality of his sources, sometimes superabundant, sometimes defective, partly perhaps to the somewhat hasty condensation of his original draft.
For more efficient condensation - and also for shortening the apparatus - the central tube may be flattened, bent into a succession of V's, or twisted into a spiral form, the object in each case being to increase the condensing surface.
Typical formulae are (R denoting 0, S or NH): Isomers are possible, for the condensation may be effected on the two carbon atoms symmetrically placed to the hetero-atom; these isomers, however, are more of the nature of internal anhydrides.
Pinner, Ber., 1892, 25, p. 1624): / NH N C?CsH 5 2C61 - 15 C +(CH 3 C0) 2 0 -> C6H5 C N; NH 2 N :C?CH3 or by the condensation of aromatic nitriles with acid chlorides in the presence of aluminium chloride (Eitner and Krafft, Ber., 1892, 25, p. 2263).
On heating piperidine with phosphorus pentachloride to 200°C. in a sealed tube pentamethylene dichloride is obtained, and this on treatment with potassium phthalimide gives a condensation product of composition, C 6 H 4 [CO] 2 N(CH 2) 5 N[CO] 2 C 6 H 4, which is finally hydrolysed by hydrochloric acid.
At every stage of the geographical cycle the land forms, as they exist at that stage, are concerned in guiding the condensation and flow of water in certain definite ways.
An objectionable feature of the system of allowing the vapour to escape from the still to the condenser through a loaded valve, viz: the irregularity of the distillation, is thus removed, and the benefits of regular vaporization and condensation under high pressure are obtained.
The effect may, however, also be due to chemical change known as condensation, and be accompanied by the elimination of the elements of water.
Soc. for 1903 and 1905) goes to show that during cloudy weather the summit of the mountain resembles an immense sponge, and that this condensation of moisture considerably influences the yield of the springs in the lower part of the mountain.
Substituted acetylenes also exhibit this form of condensation; for instance, bromacetylene, BrC: CH, is readily converted into tribrombenzene, while propiolic acid, HC: C. COOH, under the influence of sunlight, gives benzene tricarboxylic acid.
4]-trimethylbenzene or pseudocumene; and of the condensation product of two molecules of isovaleryl aldehyde with one of acetone, C 3 H 7 CH 2 CH:C(C 3 H 7) CH:CH CO.
The skeletons of these types are (the carbon atoms are omitted for brevity): We have previously referred to the condensation of heterocyclic ring systems containing two vicinal carbon atoms with benzene, naphthalene and other nuclei.
Scholtz (Ber., 1894, 2 7, p. 2 95 8) from piperonyl acrolein (the condensation product of piperonal and acetaldehyde) and acetic acid.
Except such as are of coral formation, the Antilles are hilly, not to say mountainous, their summits rising in places to an elevation of 8000 ft., and nearly all, prior to their occupation by Europeans, were covered with luxuriant forest, which, assisting in the collection and condensation of the clouds brought by the trade winds, ensured its own vitality by precipitating frequent and long-continued rains; upon the fertile soil.
The condensation of a nebula could be followed in the same manner as we can study the growth of the trees in the forest, by comparing the trees of various ages which the forest contains at the same time.
An important class of compounds, termed amines (q.v.), results from the condensation of alcohols with ammonia, water being eliminated between the alcoholic hydroxyl group and a hydrogen atom of the ammonia.
Somewhat similar condensations are: of geranial or citral, (CH 3) 2 CH CH 2 CH :CH C(CH 3) :CH CHO, to p-isopropylmethylbenzene or cymene; of the condensation product of methylethylacrolein and acetone, CH3 CH2 CH:C(CH3) CH:CH CO CH3, to [1.3.
One or two benzene nuclei may suffer condensation with the furfurane, thiophene and pyrrol rings, the common carbon atoms being vicinal to the hetero-atom.
Such a reduction of temperature is brought about along the greater part of the coasts of India and of the BurmoSiamese peninsula by the interruption of the wind current by continuous ranges of mountains, which force the mass of air to rise over them, whereby the air being rarefied, its specific capacity for heat is increased and its temperature falls, with a corresponding condensation of the vapour originally held in suspension.
In the American petroleum refineries it is found that sufficient cracking can be produced by slow distillation in stills of which the upper part is sufficiently cool to allow of the condensation of the vapours of the less volatile hydrocarbons, the condensed liquid thus falling back into the heated body of oil.
Compounds containing an oxy in addition to an aldehydic or ketonic group) undergo both condensation and oxidation when treated with phenylhydrazine, forming compounds known as osozones; these are of great importance in characterizing the sugars (q.v.).
The globules in the latex are liquid, and the phenomenon of coagulation would seem to consist in the passage of this liquid into solid caoutchouc through the kind of change known as polymerization or condensation, in which a liquid passes into solid without alteration of composition or by condensation with the elimination of the elements of water.
A notable example is provided by the phthaleins, which result by the condensation of phthalic anhydride with phenols.
They form condensation products with aldehydes, benzaldehyde and aniline forming benzylidene aniline, C 6 H 5 N: CHC 6 H 5, and when heated with acids they form anilides.
The steam is introduced into the pipes at about the pressure of the atmosphere, and is sucked through the system by means of a vacuum pump, which at the same operation frees the pipes from air and from condensation water.
A historic example is that of the condensation of three molecules of acetone, CH 3 CO CH 3, in the presence of sulphuric acid, to s-trimethylbenzene or mesitylene, C 6 H 3 (CH 3) 3, first observed in 1837 by R.
Naphthyridines and naphthinolines result from the condensation of two pryridine and two quinoline nuclei respectively; and quino-quinolines are unsymmetrical naphthyridine nuclei condensed with a benzene nucleus.
These compounds may be considered as 5-triazolones, a series of isomeric 3-triazolones resulting from the condensation of phenylsemicarbazide with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of an oxidant.
CH :CH (OH), formed by acting on formic ester with acetone in the presence of sodium ethylate, readily yields [1.3.51-triacetylbenzene, C 6 H 3 (CO CH 3) 3; oxymethylene acetic ester or formyl acetic ester or ß-oxyacrylic ester, (HO)CH :CH CO 2 C 2 H 51 formed by condensing acetic ester with formic ester, and also its dimolecular condensation product, coumalic acid, readily yields esters of [1.3.
Naturally he selects fire, according to him the most complete embodiment of the process of Becoming, as the principle of empirical existence, out of which all things, including even the soul, grow by way of a quasi condensation, and into which all things must in course of time be again resolved.
The condensation of acetylene to benzene is also possible at ordinary temperatures by leading the gas over pyrophoric iron, nickel, cobalt, or spongy platinum (P. Sabatier and J.
At a period corresponding to the condensation of the fibrous laminae and the disappearance of the cellular character of the granulation tissue.
We may here mention the synthesis of oxyuvitic ester (5-methyl-4-oxy-I-3-benzene dicarboxylic ester) by the condensation of two molecules of sodium acetoacetic ester with one of chloroform (Ann., 1883, 222, p. 249).
The effect of chemical agents in producing coagulation are in consonance with what is known of other instances of polymeric or condensation changes, whilst the fact that the collection of globules separated by creaming after thorough washing, and therefore removal of all proteid, is susceptible of solidification into caoutchouc by a merely mechanical act such as churning, strongly supports the view that the character of the change is distinct from that of any alteration which may occur in the proteid constituents of the latex.