She wrote her name in the condensation on the side of her tea glass.
Tafel, Ber., 1900, 33, p. 3385), and by the condensation of acrylic acid with urea at 210-220° C. (E.
The steam is introduced into the pipes at about the pressure of the atmosphere, and is sucked through the system by means of a vacuum pump, which at the same operation frees the pipes from air and from condensation water.
The formaldehyde at once undergoes a process of condensation oi- polymerization by the protoplasm of the plastid, while the hydrogen peroxide is said to be decomposed into water and free oxygen by another agency in the cell, of the nature of one of the enzymes of which we shall speak later.
Like Anaximenes, he believed air to be the one source of all being, and all other substances to be derived from it by condensation and rarefaction.
Soc. for 1903 and 1905) goes to show that during cloudy weather the summit of the mountain resembles an immense sponge, and that this condensation of moisture considerably influences the yield of the springs in the lower part of the mountain.
Naturally he selects fire, according to him the most complete embodiment of the process of Becoming, as the principle of empirical existence, out of which all things, including even the soul, grow by way of a quasi condensation, and into which all things must in course of time be again resolved.
Engine efficiency depends upon many variable factors, such as the cut-off, the piston speed, the initial temperature of the steam, the final temperature of the steam, the quality of the steam, the sizes of the steam-pipes, ports and passages, the arrangement of the cylinders and its effect on condensation, the mechanical perfection of the steam-distributing gear, the tightness of the piston, &c. A few values of the thermal efficiency obtained from experiments are given in Table XXI.
Malonic acid, as well as its esters, is characterized by the large number of condensation products it can form.
In the American petroleum refineries it is found that sufficient cracking can be produced by slow distillation in stills of which the upper part is sufficiently cool to allow of the condensation of the vapours of the less volatile hydrocarbons, the condensed liquid thus falling back into the heated body of oil.
By the action of hydroxylamine or phenylhydrazine on aldehydes or ketones, condensation occurs between the carbonyl oxygen of the aldehyde or ketone and the amino group of the hydroxylamine or hydrazine.
The condensation of acetylene to benzene is also possible at ordinary temperatures by leading the gas over pyrophoric iron, nickel, cobalt, or spongy platinum (P. Sabatier and J.
CH :CH (OH), formed by acting on formic ester with acetone in the presence of sodium ethylate, readily yields [1.3.51-triacetylbenzene, C 6 H 3 (CO CH 3) 3; oxymethylene acetic ester or formyl acetic ester or ß-oxyacrylic ester, (HO)CH :CH CO 2 C 2 H 51 formed by condensing acetic ester with formic ester, and also its dimolecular condensation product, coumalic acid, readily yields esters of [1.3.
2 3, p. 2 377) investigated the condensation of pyroracemic acid, CH 3 CO 000H, with various aliphatic aldehydes, and obtained from two molecules of the acid and one of the aldehyde in the presence of baryta water alkylic isophthalic acids: with acetaldehyde [1.3.51-methylisophthalic acid or uvitic acid, C 6 H 3 CH 3 (000H) 2, was obtained, with propionic aldehyde [1.3.
Chem., 1896, 26, (2), p. 374) the condensation of acetone-di-propionic acid under the influence of boiling water to a diketohexamethylene propionic acid (von Pechmann and Sidgwick, Ber., 1904, 37, p. 3816).
The skeletons of these types are (the carbon atoms are omitted for brevity): We have previously referred to the condensation of heterocyclic ring systems containing two vicinal carbon atoms with benzene, naphthalene and other nuclei.
One or two benzene nuclei may suffer condensation with the furfurane, thiophene and pyrrol rings, the common carbon atoms being vicinal to the hetero-atom.
A notable example is provided by the phthaleins, which result by the condensation of phthalic anhydride with phenols.
The effect of chemical agents in producing coagulation are in consonance with what is known of other instances of polymeric or condensation changes, whilst the fact that the collection of globules separated by creaming after thorough washing, and therefore removal of all proteid, is susceptible of solidification into caoutchouc by a merely mechanical act such as churning, strongly supports the view that the character of the change is distinct from that of any alteration which may occur in the proteid constituents of the latex.
Few simple derivatives of the a-series are known, those which have been prepared result by such reactions as the condensation of aminoguanidine or a similar type of compound (e.g.
Reissert, Ber., 18 99, 3 2, p. 782), the chief product in this latter reaction being an isoindazolone: // CH2 NHC6H5 /CH2 NH C6H5 /CH2 NC6H5 C6H4 - C6H4 - C6 H4 NH 2 HCI N :NCI N=N The best drawn series of the triazines is the symmetrical or cyanidine series, members of which result from the condensation of acid anhydrides with aromatic amidines (A.
In using benzoyl chloride in this reaction the condensation is found to proceed better if a little ammonium chloride be added: 2C6H5 CNd-C6H5.0001 C6H5 C Cl OC C6H5 6 H 5 N C(C6H5):N The cyanidines behave as weak bases.
Scholtz (Ber., 1894, 2 7, p. 2 95 8) from piperonyl acrolein (the condensation product of piperonal and acetaldehyde) and acetic acid.
As a literary composition they do not rank very high, which may be due partly to the author's years, partly to the inequality of his sources, sometimes superabundant, sometimes defective, partly perhaps to the somewhat hasty condensation of his original draft.
It is formed by the condensation of acetylene tetrabromide with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride: Br CH Br CH C H +C6H6=4HBr+C6H4) I, )C6H4, Br CH Br CH and similarly from methylene dibromide and benzene, and also when benzyl chloride is heated with aluminium chloride to 200° C. By condensing ortho-brombenzyl bromide with sodium, C. L.
For more efficient condensation - and also for shortening the apparatus - the central tube may be flattened, bent into a succession of V's, or twisted into a spiral form, the object in each case being to increase the condensing surface.