He managed to draw down upon himself alone the burden of the condemnations pronounced.
Many condemnations followed, and hundreds of politicals were immured in hideous dungeons, a state of things which provoked Gladstones famous letters to Lord Aberdeen, in which Bourbon rule was branded for all time as the negation of God erected into a system of government.
As in 1894, excessively severe sentences were passed by the military tribunals upon revolutionary leaders and other persons considered to have been implicated in the outbreak, but successive royal amnesties obliterated these condemnations within three years.
His encyclical issued at Easter 1902, and described by himself as a kind of will, was mainly a reiteration of earlier condemnations of the Reformation, and of modern philosophical systems, which for their atheism and materialism he makes responsible for all existing moral and political disorders.
In 1358 the parte Guelfa made these enactments still more stringent, punishing with death or heavy fines all who being Ghibellines held office, and provided that if trustworthy witnesses were forthcoming condemnations might be passed for this offence without hearing the accused; even a non-proved charge or an ammonizione (warning not to accept office) might entail disfranchisement.
The majority of the condemnations were at that time of a specially theological character.
The tendency of the practice among Catholics at large is to reduce these condemnations to the proportions of the moral law.
This is the controversy known as that of theThree Chapters (Tria capitula,r pia KEg4aXaca), apparently from the three propositions or condemnations contained in Justinian's original edict, one relating to Theodore's writings and person, the second to the incriminated treatise of Theodoret (whose person was not attacked), the third to the letter (if genuine) of Ibas (see Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, ii.
Created cardinal-priest in 1244, he played an important part in the council of Lyons in 1245, contributed to the institution of the Feast of Holy Sacrament, the reform of the Carmelites (1247), and the condemnations of the Introductorius in evangelium aeternum of Gherardino del Borgo San Donnino (1255), and of William of St Amour's De periculis novissimorum temporum.
In1796-1804he was a commissioner under article 7 of Jay's Treaty of 1794 to determine the claims of American merchants for damage through "irregular or illegal captures or condemnations," and during this time adjusted on behalf of Maryland a claim of the state to stock in the Bank of England.
"I think, however, that these condemnations have some ground," returned Prince Andrew, trying to resist Speranski's influence, of which he began to be conscious.