Influence of External Cond itions.T his position does not, however, exclude the influence of external conditions; that influence is undeniable.
A great battle is said to have been fought near Birr in the 3rd century between Cormac, son of Cond of the Hundred Battles, and the people of Munster.
The immigrants, cond;t;ons.
Under foot, it now demanded much more radical reform, quitting the ranks of peaceable citizens to pass into the only militant class of the time and adopt its customs. Men like Coligny, dAndelot and Cond took the place of the timid Lefvre of Etapies and the harsh and bitter Calvin; and the reform party, in contradiction to its doctrines and its doctors, became a political and religious party of opposition, with all the compromises that presupposes.
These ambitious and violent men took the government out of the hands of the constable de Montmorency and the princes of the blood: Antoine de Bourbon, king of Navarre, weak, credulous, always playing a double game on account of his preoccupation with Navarre; Cond, light-hearted and brave, but not fitted to direct a party; and the cardinal de Bourbon, a mere nonentity.
Cond and Coligny, who, having obtained liberty of conscience in January 1561, now demanded liberty of worship. The colloquy at Poissy between the cardinal of Lorraine and Theodore Bean (September 1561), did not end in the agreement hoped for, and the duke of Guise so far abused its spirit as to embroil the French Calvinists with the German I
The i9th of December 1562 the duke of Guise barred the way to Dreux against the German reinforcements of dAndelot, who after having threatened Paris were marching to join forces with the English troops for whom Coligny and Cond had paid by the cession of Havre.
The death of marshal de St Andr, and the capture of the constable de Montmorency and of Cond, which marked this indecisive battle, left Coligny and Guise face to face.
The egoism of Cond, who got himself made lieutenant-general of the kingdom, and bargained for freedom of worship for the Protestant nobility only, compTomised the future of both hi1 church and his party, though rendering possible the peace of AInboise,, concluded the iqth.
Cond, with the men-at-arms of John Casimir, son of the Count Palatine, tried to starve out the capital; but once more the defection Peace of of the nobles obliged him to sign a treaty of peace at juomneman.
Catholic propaganda, revived by the monks and the Jesuits, and backed by the armed confraternities and by Catherines favorite son, the duke of Anjou, now entrusted with a prominent part by the cardinal of Lorraine; Catherines complicity in the duke of Alvas terrible persecution in the Netherlands; and her attempt to capture Coligny and Cond at Noyers all combined to cause a fresh outbreak of hostilities in the west.
Thanks to Tavannes, the duke of Anjou gained easy victories at Jarnac over the prince of Cond, who was killed, and at Moncontour over Coligny, who was wounded (March October 1569); but these successes were rendered fruitless by the jealousy of Charles IX.
The reformers had now no leaders, and their situation seemed as perilous as that of their co-religionists in the Netherlands; while the sieges of La Rochelle and Leiden, the enforced exile of the prince of Orange, and the conversion under pain of death of Henry of Navarre and the prince of Cond, made the common danger more obvious.
There were the friends of the Montmorency partyDamville at their head; Colignys relations; the king of Navarre; Cond; and a prince of the blood, Catherine de Medicis third son, the duke of Alencon, tired of being kept in the background.
The compact was concluded at Millau; Cond becoming a Protestant once more in order to treat with Damville, Mootmorencys brother.
Despite the victory ~89) of Guise at Dormans, the agreement between the duke of Alencon and John Casimirs German army obliged the royal party to grant all that the allied forces demanded of them in the peace of Monsieur, signed at Beaulieu on the 6th of May 1576, the duke of Alencon receiving the appanage of Anjou, Touraine and Berry, the king of Navarre Guienne, ~,ie0u~~r and Cond Picardy, while the Protestants were granted (1576).
On one side were the former ministers, Sillery and president Jeannin, ex-leaguers but loyalists, no lovers of Spain and still less of Germany; on the other the princes of the blood and the great nobles, Cond, Guise, Mayenne and Nevers, apparently still much more faithful to French ideas, but in reality convinced that the days of kings were over and that their own had arrived.
Meanwhile, however, still more was ceded to the princes than to the kings; and after a pretence of drawing the sword against the prince of Cond, rebellious through jealousy of the Italian surroundings of the queen-mothei, recourse was had to the purse.
The convocation of the states-general was about to take place, wrung, as in all minorities, from the royal weaknessthis time by Cond; so the elections were influenced in the monarchist interest.
Villeroy demurred; and the parlement, having illegally assumed a political role, broke with Cond and effected a reconciliation with the court.
In order not to countenance by his presence an act which had been the pretext for hie opposition, Cond rebelled once more in August 1615; but he was again pacified by the governorships and pensions of the peace of Loudun (May 1616).
They had but one desire, to put themselves on a good footing again with Cond, instead of applying themselves honestly to the service dAnc,e.
Cond now began intrigues with the princes whom he had previously betrayed; but his pride dissolved in piteous entreaties when Thmines, captain of the guard, arrested him in September 1616.
From 1621 to 1624 Marie de Medici, re-established in credit, prosecuted her intrigues; and in three years there were three different ministries: de Luynes was succeeded by the Return of prince de Cond, whose Montauban was found at M:dkt.
Montpellier; the Brfilarts succeeded Cond, and having, like de Luynes, neglected Frances foreign interests, they had to give place to La Vieuville; while this latter was arrested in his turn for having sacrificed the interests of the English Catholics in the negotiations regarding the marriage of Henrietta of France with the prince of Wales.
Thanks to him, the duke of Enghien (Louis de Bourbon, afterwards prince of Cond), appointed commander-in-chief at the age of twentytwo, caused the downfall of the renowned Spanish infantry at Rocroi; and he discovered Turenne, whose prudence tempered Conds overbold ideas.
With Turenne dominating the Eiser and the Inn, Cond victorious at Lens, and the Swedes before the gates of Prague~the emperor, left without a single ally, finally authorized his pienipotentiaries to sign on the 24th of October 1648 the peace about which negotiations had been going on for seven years.
As an eniracte, from April 1649 to January 1650, came the affair of the Fetus Maitre:: Cond, proud and violent; Gaston of Orleans, pliable and contemptible; Conti, the The simpleton; and Longueville, the betrayed husband.
To defend Cond the great conspiracy of women was formed: Madame de Chevreuse, the subtle and impassioned princess palatine, and the princess of Cond vainly attempted to arouse Normandy, Burgundy and the mob of Bordeaux; while Turenne, bewitched by Madame de Longueville, allowed himself to become involved with Spain and was defeated at Rethel (December15, 1650).
Cond resumed civil war with the support of Spain, because he was not given Mazarins place; but though he defeated the royal army at Blneau, he was surprised at Etampes, and nearly crushed by Turenne at the gate of SaintAntoine.
Then came the final collapse: Cond having taken refuge in Spain for seven years, Gaston of Orleans being in exile, Retz in prison, and the parlement reduced to its judiciary functions only, the field was left open for Mazarin, who, four months after the king, re-entered in triumph that Paris which had driven him forth with jeers and mockery (February 1653).
Under his orders Turenne conquered Flanders (June-August 1667); and as the queen-mother of Spain would not give in, Cond occupied Franche Comt in fourteen days The tilpie (February 1668).
The brothers de Witt, in consequence of their fresh offer to treat at any price, were assassinated; the broken dykes of Muiden arrested the victorious march of Cond and Turenne; while the popular and military party, directed by the stadtholder William of Orange, took the upper hand and preached resistance to the death.
After fighting for five years against the whole of Europe by land and by sea, the efforts of Turenne, Cond and Duquesne culminated at Nijmwegen.
The French armies, notwithstanding the disappearance of Cond and Turenne, had still glorious days before them with Luxembourg at Fleurus, at Steenkirk and at Neerwinden (1690*1693), and with Catinat in Piedmont, at Staffarda, and at Marsaglia; but these successes alternated with reverses.
(March 19, 1702) his policy tliumphed, and in this war, the longest in the reign, it was the names of the enemys generals, Prince Eugene of Savoy, Mazarins grand-nephew, and the duke of Marlborough, which sounded in the ear, instead of Cond, Turenrie and Luxembourg.
The Regency had been the making of the house of Orleans; thenceforward the question was how to humble it, and the duc de Bourbon, now prime ministera great-grandson MIn!str~ of the great Cond, but a narrow-minded man of of the limited intelligence, led by a worthless woman ducde set himself to do so.
Under the prince of Cond they had ollected a little army round Trier; and in concert with the Austrian Committee of Paris they solicited the armed intervention of monarchical Europe.
The constitu the tional party, royalist in reality, had made alarming royalists, progress, chiefly owing to the Babouvist conspiracy; they now tried to corrupt the republican generals, and Cond procured the treachery of Pichegru, Kellermann and General Ferrand at Besancon.