Larger quantities of deposit may be conveniently collected by means of the dredge, which can be worked in any depth and brings up large stones, concretionary nodules or fossils, of the existence of which a sounding-tube could give no indication.
They occur (a) in crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks as an original constituent, (b) in veins associated with igneous rocks, and (c) in sedimentary rocks either as organic fragments or in secondary concretionary forms.
In whatever form they were originally deposited they often suffer complete or partial solution and are redeposited as concretionary lumps and nodules, often called coprolites.
The di-calcium salt, Ca2H2(P04)2, occurs in a concretionary form in the ureters and cloaca of the sturgeon, and also in guano.
As small concretionary nodules, it occurs disseminated through sandstone at Kommern in the Eifel.
It is never crystallized, but may have a fibrous or microcrystalline structure, and commonly occurs in concretionary forms or in compact and earthy masses; sometimes mammillated, botryoidal, reniform or stalactitic. The colour presents various shades of brown and yellow, and the streak is always brownish, a character which distinguishes it from haematite with a red, or from magnetite with a black streak.
Granular and concretionary limonite accumulates by organic action on the floor of certain lakes in Sweden, forming the curious "lake ore."
By modern mineralogists the name chalcedony is restricted to those kinds of silica which occur not in distinct crystals like ordinary quartz, but in concretionary, mammillated or stalactitic forms, which break with a fine splintery fracture, and display a delicate fibrous structure.
Kankar or ghutin (concretionary carbonate of lime) is collected for this purpose from the river-beds and alluvial deposits.
Its formation is consequently the result of "concretionary action."
These contain each a single concretionary otolith.