As secretary to the conclave which assembled in the monastery of San Giorgio Maggiore at Venice, Consalvi had the difficult task of corresponding with the various governments and organizing the assembly at a time when the Revolution had confused all issues and reduced the individual cardinals to beggary.
At Perugia on the 5th of June 1305 he was chosen to succeed Benedict XI.; the cardinals by a vote of ten to five electing one neither an Italian nor a cardinal, in order to end a conclave which had lasted eleven months.
He participated in the conclave which followed the death of Innocent VIII.
Died in February 1513, and the conclave, after a stormy seven day's session, united on Cardinal de' Medici as the candidate of the younger cardinals.
There is no evidence of simony in the conclave, and Leo's election was hailed with delight by the Romans on account of his reputation for liberality, kindliness and love of peace.
Under Henry II., being involved in the disgrace of all the servants of Francis I., he was sent to Rome (1547), and he obtained eight votes in the conclave which followed the death of Pope Paul III.
In 1846 Austria hoped to secure the election of another zealot; but the Italian cardinals, who did~not want an Austrophil, finished the conclave EJection of..
Articles 6 and 7 forbade access of any Italian official or agent to the above-mentioned palaces or to any eventual conclave or oecumenical council without special authorization from the pope, conclave Or council.
Notwithstanding the pontiffs bestowal of the apostolic benediction in articulo mortis upon Victor Emmanuel, the attitude of the Vatican had remained so inimical as to make it doubtful whether the conclave would be held in Rome.
The Sacred College having decided to hold the conclave abroad, Crispi assured them of absolute freedom if they remained in Rome, or of protection to the frontier should they migrate, but warned them that, once evacuated, the Vatican would be occupied in the name of the Italian government and be lost to the Church as headquarters of the papacy.
The cardinals thereupon overruled their former decision, and the conclave was held in Rome, the new pope, Cardinal Pecci, being elected on the 20th of February 1878 without let or hindrance.
At the conclave Francesco, Todeschini-Piccolomini was elected as Pius III., and he showed every disposition to be peaceful and respectable, but he was old, and in bad health.
Died on the 18th of October 1503, and a new conclave was held.
Rampolla was undoubtedly the favourite among the papabili cardinals; but the veto of Austria was interposed (see Conclave), and the votes of the Sacred College fell to Cardinal Sarto, who on the 4th of August 1903 became pope as Pius X.
The whole conclave may be compared with the enclosed bazaars or khans of Oriental cities which are usually locked at night.
Died (7th February 1878) Cardinal Pecci was elected pope at the subsequent conclave with comparative unanimity, obtaining at the third scrutiny (loth February) forty-four out of sixty-one votes, or more than the requisite two-thirds majority.
The conclave was remarkably free from political influences, the attention of Europe being at the time engrossed by the presence of a Russian army at the gates of Constantinople.
Led some of the cardinals to vote for Pecci, since his age (within a few days of sixty-eight) and health warranted the expectation that his reign would be comparatively brief; but he had for years been known as one of the few "papable" cardinals; and although his long seclusion at Perugia had caused his name to be little known outside Italy, there was a general belief that the conclave had selected a man who was a prudent statesman as well as a devout churchman; and Newman (whom he created a cardinal in the year following) is reported to have said, "In the successor of Pius I recognize a depth of thought, a tenderness of heart, a winning simplicity, and a power answering to the name of Leo, which prevent me from lamenting that Pius is no longer here."
But at the end of three days the conclave resulted in the election of Cardinal Otto Colonna, who took the name of Martin V.
Crispi, helped by Mancini and Cardinal Pecci (afterwards Leo persuaded the Sacred College to hold the conclave in Rome, and prorogued the chamber lest any untoward manifestation should mar the solemnity of the event.
It is said that he was murdered by a servant when on his way to the conclave that elected Adrian VI.
7, 1878); and in the subsequent conclave, while some Italian cardinals were prepared to vote for his election to fill the vacant chair, he himself supported Cardinal Pecci, afterwards known as Leo XIII.
Had he not joined the conclave of autocrats at Gaeta, and, above all, had he not summoned Austrian assistance while denying that he had done so, in 1849, he might yet have preserved his throne, and even changed the whole course of Italian history.
In conjunction with Cardinal Giulio de' Medici in the conclave of 1521-1522, he secured the election of Adrian Dedel, bishop of Tortosa, as Adrian VI.
The 14th century Kaufhaus (warehouse for goods) was the scene of the conclave that elected Martin V., but the council really sat in the cathedral church.
He had French troops at the gates of Rome, by means of which he could easily have frightened the conclave and induced them to elect him; but he was persuaded to trust to his influence; the troops were dismissed, and an Italian was appointed as Pius III.; and again, on the death of Pius within the month, another Italian, Julius II., was chosen (1503).
He was almost the only one who succeeded in making a firm stand in the tumultuous conclave of 1378; but the deliberation with which he made up his mind as to the validity of the election of Urban VI.
(See Conclave.) In the law of elections, scrutiny is the careful examination of votes cast after the unsuccessful candidate has lodged a petition claiming the seat, and alleging that he has the majority of legal votes.
This is a purely deliberative conclave, worked by committees, and all its legislation has to be confirmed by the two Associations before it can have any force or be legal.
During the Conclave of 1878 he succeeded, by negotiations with Cardinal Pecci (afterwards Leo XIII.), in inducing the Sacred College to remain in Rome, and, after the election of the new pope, arranged for his temporary absence from the Vatican for the purpose of settling private business.
From Messina he proceeded by sea in order to be present at the expected conclave at Venice, where he arrived in the spring of 1799, aged, ill and almost penniless.
On the 2nd of February 1831 he was, after sixty-four days' conclave, unexpectedly chosen to succeed Pius VIII.
(See Conclave and [[Lateran Councils.) - [Ed]].] Cassino (Victor III., 1086-1087), whom he nominated as his successor, was well known for his moderation.
In the 12th century, promulgated the celebrated constitution by which the cardinal-electors were shut up in conclave and, in the event of their not having designated the new pope within three days, were constrained to perform their duty by a progressive reduction of their food-allowance (see Conclave).
Thirteen of them assembled at Anagni, and thence, on the 9th of August, issued a passionate manifesto, announcing the invalidity of Urban's election, on Election of the ground that it had been forced upon the conclave Anti-pope by the Roman populace.
When the last-named condition had been fulfilled on the 28th of October the conclave began, on the 8th of November 1417, in the Kaufhaus of Constance; and, no later than St Martin's day, the cardinal-deacon Oddo Colonna was elected Pope Martin V.
After a protracted conclave Giovanni Maria del Monte was elected, on the 7th of February 1550, as Pope Julius III.
On the 10th of April 1555, after a conclave which lasted five days, the reform party secured Marce// /555 us 11.
The succession was expected to fall to Leo's secretary of state, Cardinal Rampolla; but he was credited with having inspired the French sympathies of the late pope; Austria exercised its right of veto (see Conclave, ad fin.), and on the 8th of August, Giuseppe Sarto, who as cardinal patriarch of Venice had shown a friendly disposition towards the Italian government, was elected pope.
The conclave that met at Perugia on his death was divided between the partisans of the irreconcilable policy of Boniface VIII.
The verdicts pronounced by this conclave on new books were speedily known over all London, and were sufficient to sell off a whole edition in a day, or to condemn the sheets to the service of the trunkmaker and the pastrycook.
This discreetness contributed not a little to his election to the papacy on the 24th of April 1585; but the story of his having feigned decrepitude in the Conclave, in order to win votes, is a pure invention.
In 1846 he signed the petition to the Conclave for the election of a Liberal pope, and was appointed member of the state council summoned to prepare the constitution for the papal states.
For the history of the papacy, and associated questions, see Papacy, Conclave, Curia Romana, Cardinal, &C.
At the conclave of 1549 Pole received two-thirds of the votes, but by a delay, caused by his sense of responsibility, he lost the election and Julius III.
On the motion, however, of Ippolito d'Este, the papal legate, exception was taken to the further conduct of the negotiations in full conclave; and a committee of twenty-four representatives, twelve from each party, was appointed - ostensibly to facilitate a satisfactory decision.
On the death of Gregory XI., who had finally returned to Rome from Avignon, he was elected pope in a conclave held under circumstances of great excitement, owing to popular apprehension of an intention of the French cardinals to elect a French pope and again abandon Rome.
He attended the conclave of 1878, but was too late to vote for the new pope.
In a conclave which had lasted for months he was elected on the 17th of August 1740 the successor of Clement XII.
The address caused a deep impression, and it was no doubt much in the minds of the cardinals when they assembled in conclave for the election of a new pope on the last day of Aug.