The model followed in these two states was not Victoria but New Zealand, where an Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act was passed in 1894.
Unlike the latter, they reproduced the institution of district conciliation boards in addition to the arbitration court; but these boards were a failure here as they were in New Zealand, and after 1903 they fell into disuse.
It was the same question that formed the chief subject of debate over the Federal Conciliation and Arbitration Act, which, after causing the defeat of more than one ministry, passed through the Commonwealth parliament in 1904.
The high average in Sardinia is chiefly due to cases within the competence of the conciliation offices.
One of the first questions with which he had to deal was that of conciliation between Italy and the Vatican.
The theory is a conciliation of Theism and Pantheism.
His strong common sense and sound practical judgment led him to adopt a policy of conciliation towards the native princes, and to promote measures tending to the betterment of the condition of the people.
In this year he was also a member of a committee to consider Lord North's offer of conciliation, which he vigorously opposed.
By the close of the year the situation had become so envenomed that Bissolati, the foremost Italian advocate of conciliation, found it necessary to withdraw from the Orlando Cabinet, and on Jan.
To make one more effort towards conciliation, the financial houses of Johannesburg offered to lend the Transvaal government 600,000 wherewith to buy out the dynamite company, and so terminate the scandal and bring some relief to the industry.
The political ineptitude of James is clear; he often showed firmness when conciliation was needful, and weakness when resolution alone could have saved the day.
An astute, dissolute and ambitious man, half French and half Levantine, he began his government by a policy of conciliation and impartial justice which won him great popularity.
Adjacent to the town are the two Augustus Cleveland monuments, one erected by government, and the other by the Hindus, to the memory of the civilian, who, as collector of Bhagalpur at the end of the 18th century, "by conciliation, confidence and benevolence, attempted and accomplished the entire subjection of the lawless and savage inhabitants of the Jungleterry of Rajmahal."
Deriving from his birthplace the culture, literary and philosophical, of Magna Graecia, and having gained the friendship of the greatest of the Romans living in that great age, he was of all the early writers most fitted to be the medium of conciliation between the serious genius of ancient Greece and the serious genius of Rome.
(1189), adopted a policy of conciliation towards them.
Strassburg pronounced for conciliation: but the most powerful and zealous champion of peace was to be found in the landgrave Philip of Hesse, who recognized the absolute necessity - from a political standpoint - of the union of all German Protestants.
In addition to the usual state boards of education (1837), agriculture (1852), railroad commissioners (1869), health (1869), statistics of labour, fisheries and game, charity (1879), the dairy bureau (1891), of insanity (1898), prison, highways, insurance and banking commissions, there are also commissions on ballot-law, voting machines, civil service (1884), uniformity of legislation, gas and electric lighting corporations, conciliation and arbitration in labour disputes (1886), &c. There are efficient state boards of registration in pharmacy, dentistry and medicine.
The work of the Bureau of Statistics of Labor, of the Bureau of Health, of the Board of Railroad Commissioners, and of the Board of Conciliation and Arbitration, and the progress of civil service, have been remarkable for value and efficiency.
In the same period the mediation of the Board settled disputes affecting 5560 establishments; and in the latter half of this period labour disputes involving hostilities and of the magnitude contemplatedby the statute governing the Board of Conciliation and Arbitration had almost disappeared.
Meanwhile the keystone of the regulative system had been laid by the passing of the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act, under which disputes between employers and unions of workers are compulsorily settled by state tribunals; strikes and lock-outs are virtually prohibited in the case of organized work-people, and the conditions of employment in industries may be, and in many cases are, regulated by public boards and courts.
But this omission was supplied in Prussia by a law of the 29th of March 1879, which provided for the appointment, in each commune, of an arbitrator (Schiedsmann) before whom conciliation proceedings in contentious matters might be conducted.
A system of conciliation, similar to the Prussian, exists in Italy (laws of the 16th of June 1892, and the 26th of December 1892) and in some of the Swiss cantons (law of the 29th of April 1883).
In Portugal, provision has been made for the creation in important industrial centres, on the application of the administrative corporations, of boards of conciliation (decrees of the 14th of August 1889, and the 18th of May 1893).
P P He adopted a tone of conciliation, and decided that the Stellaland republic should remain under a sort of British suzerainty.
Another agency, called the " American Association for International Conciliation," seeks by the publication of essays on the different aspects of international friendship to promote the same cause.
Disorders provoked by the struggle brought about a reaction, which was organized by certain prelates who advocated a policy of conciliation, such as the Frenchman Ivo, bishop of Chartres (c. 1040-1116).
At length the two parties grew weary of this state of revolution, and a regime of conciliation, the fruit of mutual concessions, was established under Clement III.
Yet her acts of concession and conciliation were such as no fanatic on the opposite side could have approved.
In 1852 the Liberal cabinet was overthrown and a ministry of conciliation was formed.
They supported government bills in the Reichstag, and won the commendation of the emperor.~ Unfortunately, for reasons which are not apparent, the Prussian government did not continue a course of conciliation; in 1901 administrative edicts still further limited the use of the Polish language; even religious instruction was to be given in German, and an old royal ordinance of 1817 was made the pretext for forbidding private instruction in Polish.
On the 26th of February 1908 the discussion on this bill was continued, Count Arnim defending it on the ground that conciliation had failed and other measures must now be triedl The Poles were aiming at raising their standard of civilization and learning and thus gradually expelling the Germans, and this, together with the rapid growth of the Polish population, constituted a grave danger.
Apart from politics he took a deep and active interest in the problems of capital and labour, was one of the organizers (1901) and the first president of the National Civic Federation, whose purpose was to solve social and industrial problems, and in December 1901 became chairman of a permanent board of conciliation and arbitration established by the Federation.
The king refused to open parliament unless the barricades were removed, and while the moderate elements attempted to bring about conciliation, the ministry acted with great weakness.
At conciliation, although favoured by Lord Minto, Sicily failed, for Naples wanted one constitution and one parliament, whereas Sicily wanted two, with only the king in common.
The British and French admirals imposed a truce with a view to conciliation, and the king offered the Sicilians the Neapolitan constitution and a separate parliament, which they refused.
While the law was thus sternly enforced, important acts of conciliation and measures of reform were carried out simultaneously.
He insisted on a poetical interpretation of the Church's liturgy; and while strenuously maintaining her Divine commission to teach faith and morals, he regarded the Church as in other respects a learner; and he advocated a policy of conciliation with the world, and an alliance with the best tendencies of contemporary thought.
A Board of Arbitration (1895) has authority to make and publish investigations of all facts relating to strikes and lock-outs, to issue subpoenas for the attendance and testifying of witnesses, and "to adjust strikes or lock-outs by mediation or conciliation, without a formal submission to arbitration."
Conciliation was also tried with some success; plantation schemes were rejected in favour of an attempt to Anglicize the Irish; their chieftains were created earls and endowed with monastic lands; and so peaceful was Ireland in 1542 that the lord-deputy could send Irish kernes and gallowglasses to fight against the Scots.
Henry, however, seems to have believed as much in the coercion of Scotland as in the conciliation of Ireland.
The emperors Zeno and Anastasius had been strongly suspected of it, and the Roman bishops had refused to communicate with the patriarchs of Constantinople since 484, when they had condemned Acacius for accepting the formula of conciliation issued by Zeno.
This is mostly done by so-called Committees of Conciliation, but in some cases by the court itself before commencing formal judicial proceedings.