Like all concepts the meaning of religious terms is changed with a changing experience and a changing world-view.
Locke had spent some years in Holland, the country of Grotius, who, with help from other great lawyers, and under a misapprehension as to the meaning of the Roman jus gentium, shaped modern concepts of international law by an appeal to law of nature.
Such was medicine, statically ordered in pathology, statically ordered in its clinical concepts, when, on the 24th of November 1859 the Origin of Species was published.
The Realists held that universals alone have substantial reality, existing ante res; the Nominalists that universals are mere names invented to express the qualities of particular things and existing post res; while the Conceptualists, mediating between the two extremes, held that universals are concepts which exist in our minds and express real similarities in things themselves.
With Kant, reason (Vernunft) is the power of synthesizing into unity, by means of comprehensive principles, the concepts provided by the intellect (Verstand).
Both classifications are of universals, concepts or general terms, proper names of course being excluded.
As we advance from the logic to the metaphysics and from that to his ontology, it becomes clear that the concepts are only " categories " or predicates of a reality lying outside of them, and there is an ultimate division between the world as the object or matter of thought and the thinking or moving principle which gives its life.
In spite of the defects of Kant's statement - to which it is necessary to return - the place of the concepts and ideals of the mind and the synthetic organizing 1 Kritik d.
It thinks its system of concepts freely on the occasion of the affections of the receptivity.
It appears safer, notwithstanding, to take the less subtle interpretation 11 that dialectical induction struggling with instances is formally justified only at the limit, and that this, where we have exhausted and know that we have exhausted the cases, is in regard to individual subjects rarely and accidentally reached, so that we perforce illustrate rather from the definite class-concepts falling under a higher notion.
It is a mechanical combination of propositions as these of terms which are counters to express concepts often ill-defined.
Technological advances that displace human workers are similar in effect to two other concepts with which we are very familiar in the modern age: outsourcing and free trade.
If his experiences and observations hadn't led him to the concepts, SMALL, LARGE, GOOD, BAD, SWEET, SOUR, he would have nothing to attach the word-tags to.
Apart from these two concepts which in their union mutually define one another as form and content, no conception of life is possible.
Make sure you have expertise on all of the concepts before you take the test.
His position is ordinarily designated by the name Conceptualism (q.v.), though there is very little talk of concepts in Abelard's own writings.
And it is not only the perceptions of eye or ear which tell, but also the association of concepts behind these adits of the mind.
It was the concepts derived from the experimental methods of Harvey, Lavoisier, Liebig, Claude Bernard, Helmholtz, Darwin, Pasteur, Lister and others which, directly or indirectly, trained the eyes of clinicians to observe more closely and accurately; and not of clinicians only, but also of pathologists, such as Matthew Baillie, Cruveilhier, Rokitansky, Bright, Virchowto name but a few of those who, with (as must be admitted) new facilities for necropsies, began to pile upon us discoveries in morbid anatomy and histology.
The aim of the historical works is to show the necessary connexion between philosophical concepts and the age to which they belong; the same idea is at the root of his constructive speculation.
Berkeley, though at length the notions of spirits, acts and relations 6 give him pause, prefers the formula which Hume expresses in the phrase that " some ideas are particular in their nature but general in their representation," 7 and the afterhistory of " abstraction " is a discussion of the conditions under which one idea " stands for " a group. Not from those for whom general ideas mean schematic concepts, not imageable.
So he explains " concepts or general notions " 1 by an abstraction which he represents as a sort of alt-relief operated by attention and fixed by naming, association with the name giving to a set of attributes a unity they otherwise lack.
His free use of relating concepts, that of sameness, for instance, bears no impress of his theory of the general notion, and it is possible to put out of sight the fact that, taken in conjunction with his nominalism, it raises the whole issue of the possibility of the equivocal generation of formative principles from the given contents of the individual consciousness, in any manipulation of which they are already implied.
Clarification of concepts which are wholly abstract, so that they are not merely not ultimate realities, but also in no sense actual moments of our concrete thinking.
The first task of logic is to distinguish and group such concepts according to their marks, and from their classification there naturally follows their connexion in judgment.
It is inferred then that Hegel complements from the stuff of experience, and fails to make good the pretension of his method to be by itself and of itself the means of advance to higher and still higher concepts till it can rest in the Absolute.
Kindred economic conditions prevailed in all the former provinces of the Western empire, while new law concepts were everywhere introduced by the Germanic invaders.
It is, indeed, the cardinal weakness of this form of intuitionism that no satisfactory list can be given and that no moral principles have the "constant and never-failing entity," or the definiteness, of the concepts of geometry.
To this correspond the Platonic confusion of logic and ethics and the attempt to substitute a theory of concepts for a metaphysic of reality.
- The general principle that the development of the individual follows the development of the race holds good to a certain extent in the case of the numberconcept, but it is modified by the existence of language dealing with concepts which are beyond the reach of the child, and also, of course, by the direct attempts at instruction.
The discovery of the so-called evolution of morality out of non-moral conditions is very frequently an unconscious subterfuge by which the evolutionist hides the fact that he is making a priori judgments upon the value of the moral concepts held to be evolved.
The following are the fundamental concepts of such a system.
But it is readily seen, and in the Logik Kant shows himself fully aware of the fact, that these pure connective links of experience, general aspects of objects of intelligible experience, do not resemble concepts formed by the so-called logical or elaborative processes from representations of completed objects.
If, however, we take the true view of the major premise, namely, that it is not a mere summary of observed particulars but the enunciation of a necessary connexion between two concepts or universals, then the conclusion assumes a different character.
The universal uniformity of the production of judgments presupposes the uniformity of our relations to the outward world, and the uniformity of concepts rests similarly on the likeness of our inward nature.
The essential nature of the concept is that it combines the general and the special, and the same combination recurs in being; in being the system of substantial or permanent forms answers to the system of concepts and the relation of cause and effect to the system of judgments, the higher concept answering to "force" and the lower to the phenomena of force, and the judgment to the contingent interaction of things.
The fundamental concepts of this class most in use are: (I) When a point on the earth's surface is taken as the origin, the fundamental axis may be the direction of gravity at that point.
The geometrical concepts just defined are shown in fig.
The reader who will trace out these successive concepts and study the results of his changing positions will readily acquire the notions which it is our subject to define.
Tertullian's legal training as a lawyer was a curious coincidence, if nothing more, and those legal concepts which show themselves strongly in him have done much to mould the Western type of Christian theology.
It is rather in virtue of his general faith in the possibility of construction, which he still does not undertake, and because of his consequent insistence on the elucidation of general concepts, which in common with some of his contemporaries, he may have thought of as endued with a certain objectivity, that he induces the controversies of what are called the Socratic schools as to the nature of predication.
The one in the many, the formula which lies at the base of the possibility of predication, is involved in the Socratic doctrine of general concepts or ideas.
On the other we have a stage at which the rational but as yet not reasoned concepts developed in the medium of the psychological mechanism are subjected to processes of reflective comparison and analysis, and, with some modification, maintained against challenge, till at length the ultimate universals emerge, which rational insight can posit as certain, and the whole hierarchy of concepts from the " first " universals to Ta apEA are intuited in a coherent system.