Nevertheless, though the conceptions originally denoted by " evolution " and " development " were shown to be untenable, the words retained their application to the process by which the embryos of living beings gradually make their appearance; and the terms" development," " Entwickelung,"and " evolutio " are now indiscriminately used for the series of genetic changes exhibited by living beings, by writers who would emphatically deny that " development " or " Entwickelung " or " evolutio," in the sense in which these words were usually employed by Bonnet or Haller, ever occurs.
In this endeavour Lotze discards as useless and untenable many favourite conceptions of the school, many crude notions of everyday life.
The conceptions of "element," "compound" and "mixture" became more precise than they had been hitherto; in an element all the atoms are alike, in a compound all the molecules are alike, in a mixture there are different kinds of molecules.
All the phenomena, forces and laws of nature, together with mental conceptions, were alike personified.
The Discourse of Method and the Meditations apply what the Rules for the Direction of the Mind had regarded in particular instances to our conceptions of the world as a whole.
And it is in guaranteeing the veracity of our clear and distinct conceptions that the value of his deduction of God seems in his own estimate to rest.
All conceptions which do not possess these two attributes - of being vivid in themselves and discriminated from all others - cannot be true.
But the larger part of our conceptions are in such a predicament.
The idea of force is one of those obscure conceptions which originate in an obscure region, in the sense of muscular power.
He adds a reason that recalls one of Plato's, " As manifestly as the human soul is by means of the senses linked to the present life, so manifestly it attaches itself by reason, and the conceptions, conclusions, anticipations and efforts to which reason leads it, to God and eternity."
They broke down the intense narrowness of the life of those feudal times, enlarged men's conceptions and introduced new ideas into their minds.
War broke out between the Protestant states of Sweden, Denmark, Holland and Brandenburg, with whom religion was entirely subordinated to individual aims and interests, and who were far from rising to Cromwell's great conceptions; while the Vaudois were soon subjected to fresh persecutions.
Bradley (Ethical Studies, p. 2) quotes an even plainer attack on the conceptions as well as the terminology of ethics in a Westminster Review article (Oct.
But fuller conceptions of evolution raise further difficulties for intuitionalism in its wonted forms. Knowledge cannot be divided into the two components - immediate certainties, precarious inferences.
They offer alternative and mutually exclusive conceptions of God.
Kant takes for granted that we cannot sum up these imperfect conceptions in a wider reconciling truth.
Empedocles took an important step in the direction of modern conceptions of physical evolution by teaching that all things arise, not by transformations of some primitive form of matter, but by various combinations of a number of permanent elements.
In the theory of Atomism taught by Leucippus and Democritus we have the basis of the modern mechanical conceptions of cosmic evolution.
Although Spinoza's theory attributes a mental side to all physical events, he rejects all teleological conceptions and explains the order of things as the result of an inherent necessity.
In his cosmology Kant thus relies on mechanical conceptions, in his treatment of organic life his mind is, on the contrary, dominated by teleological ideas.
So, too, some of his conceptions respecting the development of art and religion (the absolute spirit) lend themselves to a similar interpretation.
Erasmus Darwin (Zoonomia, 17 94), though a zealous evolutionist, can hardly be said to have made any real advance on his predecessors; and, notwithstanding the fact that Goethe had the advantage of a wide knowledge of morphological facts, and a true insight into their signification, while he threw all the power of a great poet into the expression of his conceptions, it may be questioned whether he supplied the doctrine of evolution with a firmer scientific basis than it already possessed.
The evidence as set out by Darwin has been added to enormously; new knowledge has in many cases altered our conceptions of the mode of the actual process of evolution, and from time to time a varying stress has been laid on what are known as the purely Darwinian factors in the theory.
Secondly, the histology of fossil plants, particularly woody plants of the carboniferous period, has been placed on a sound basis, assimilated with general histological doctrine, and has considerably enlarged our conceptions of plant anatomy as a whole, though again.
The two conceptions which may now be said to animate the theory of geography are the genetic, which depends upon processes of origin, and the morphological, which depends on facts of form and distribution.
The fundamental geographical conceptions are mathematical, the relations of space and form.
Roger Stafford, the impoverished heir male of the ancient Staffords, had been forced to surrender his barony to the king by a deed dated in the preceding year, a piece of injustice which is in the teeth of all modern conceptions of peerage law.
When Aaron himself is connected with the worship of the golden calf, and when to Moses is attributed a brazen serpent which the reforming king Hezekiah was the first to destroy, it is evident that religious conceptions developed in the course of ages.
The Hegelian identity of being and thought is also abandoned and the truth of realism acknowledged, an attempt being made to exhibit idealism and realism as respectively incomplete but mutually complementary systems. Ulrici's later works, while expressing the same views, are 1 :trgely occupied in proving the existence of God and the soul from the basis of scientific conceptions, and in opposition to the materialistic current of thought then popular in Germany.
Until the beginning of the 17th century the Byzantine tradition that in all matters outside the sphere of dogma the ecclesiastical is subordinate to the civil power had been observed in Russia; but the traditional conceptions had been to some extent undermined during the reign of Michael, when the metropolitan Philaret, who was the tsar's father (vide supra), became patriarch and was associated with his son in the government on a footing of equality.
In the imperial court, so far as outward decorum and refinement were concerned, there was an immense improvement, and the upper section of the old Russian Dvorianstvo became a noblesse with French aristocratic conceptions and ideals.
Moreover, it is hardly probable that a great leader like Moses remained unaffected by the higher conceptions tending towards monotheism which prevailed in the great empires on the Nile and on the Euphrates.
There are indeed abundant indications that prove that in the prevalent popular religion of the regal period monotheistic conceptions had no place.
We have sections which are evidently coloured by the conceptions of a later time.
Even Elisha, the greatest prophet of the 9th century, had remained within these national limitations which characterized the popular conceptions of Yahweh.
That larger conceptions prevailed in some of the loftier minds of Israel, and may be held to have existed even as far back as the age of Moses, is a fact which the Yahwistic cosmogony in Gen.
While these aspects of Israel's relation to Yahweh are emphasized by the Ephraimite prophet, the larger conceptions of Yahweh's character as universal Lord and the God of righteousness, whose government of the world is ethical, emphasized by the prophet of Tekoah, are scarcely presented.
But in Judaism monotheistic conceptions reigned supreme, and the Satan of Jewish belief as opposed to God stops short of the dualism of Persian religion.
Out of these earlier conceptions the idea of the divine wisdom (Heb.
The conceptions of Jesus of Nazareth, however, were not the Messianic conceptions of his fellow-countrymen, but 1 Deut.
As a result of this backward projection of later conceptions, the recovery of the true historical nucleus is difficult.
Among these were to be found the most sordid opportunism and the most heroic self-effacement, the crassest supernaturalism and - the loftiest conceptions of practical morality.
The conceptions of Yahweh and of the religion which was acceptable to him were constantly being elevated and purified.
He, too, must be remodelled as the conceptions of God were changed."
And in the same spirit Mill desired, whilst incorporating all the results arrived at in the special science by Smith's successors, to exhibit purely economic phenomena in relation to the most advanced conceptions of his own time in the general philosophy of society, as Smith had done in reference to the philosophy of his century.
In times past, and to a less extent in our own day, philosophical conceptions have formed the basis of great systems of politics and economics.
It is in the adaptation of biological conceptions and methods, in the positive contributions of jurisprudence, law and history, in the rigorous application, where possible, of quantitative tests, that the explanation of the present position of economics is to be found.
Moreover, the study of the theory of rent has had a very great influence on all branches of economics by destroying the notion that it is possible to draw sharp lines of distinction, or deal with economic conceptions as though they were entirely independent categories.
There are few if any conceptions in economics which cannot be expressed in it without depleting the ordinary vocabulary.
The universe constantly and obediently answers to our conceptions; whether we travel fast or slow, the track is laid for us.
Even if they do not know for what purpose they are fattened, they will at least know that all that happened to the ram did not happen accidentally, and will no longer need the conceptions of chance or genius.
To solve the question of how freedom and necessity are combined and what constitutes the essence of these two conceptions, the philosophy of history can and should follow a path contrary to that taken by other sciences.
What remains to be done is, not to explain how such a world manages to be what it is, nor how we came to form these notions, but merely this - to expel from the circle and totality of our conceptions those abstract notions which are inconsistent and jarring, or to remodel and define them so that they may constitute a consistent and harmonious view.
To this attitude he offered uncompromising opposition, and by the synthetical production of numerous hydrocarbons, natural fats, sugars and other bodies he proved that organic compounds can be formed by ordinary methods of chemical manipulation and obey the same laws as inorganic substances, thus exhibiting the "creative character in virtue of which chemistry actually realizes the abstract conceptions of its theories and classifications - a prerogative so far possessed neither by the natural nor by the historical sciences."
Only by separating the two sources of cognition, related to one another as form to content, do we get the mutually exclusive and separately incomprehensible conceptions of freedom and inevitability.