Americanus) the ridges are simple transverse wedge-shaped elevations, with straight or concave edges.
The convex side rests upon the duchy of Coburg and is in part bounded by Bavaria, while the concave side, turned towards the north, contains portions of four other Thuringian states and Prussia between its horns, which are 46 m.
The arches bear on the convex outer side the delicate arborescent gills, and on the concave inner side develop a membranous septum with vermicular perforations, a special sifting or filtering contrivance through which the water absorbed by the mouth has to pass before reaching the respiratory organs of the branchial apparatus.
2) where the anterior margin of the nasal is concave, and schizorhinal where this posterior border of the outer nares is continued backwards into a slit which extends beyond the frontal processes of the premaxilla.
(I) Amphicoelous; each end of the centrum is concave; this, the lowest condition, is embryonic, but was retained in Archaeopteryx and in the thoracic vertebrae of Ichthyornis.
(2) Procoelous, concave in front; only in the atlas, for the reception of the occipital condyle.
8) or saddle-shaped; the anterior surface is concave in a transverse, but convex in a vertical direction, which on posterior surface shows the conditions reversed.
The giant globe proposed by Elisee Reclus in 1895 has never been erected; he has, however, produced maps on a concave surface, as suggested by J.
There is usually a short gap between the canine and first premolar; the upper molars are short-crowned and transitional between the bunodont (tubercular) and selenodont (crescentic) types, with two outer concave tubercles and two inner conical ones; while the lower molars are crescentic, with three lobes in the last of the series..
Nearly related is the extinct family Lophiodontidae (inclusive of the American Helaletidae), in which both the upper and lower first premolar may be absent, while the upper molars present a more rhinoceros-like form, owing to the lateral compression and consequent lengthening of the outer columns, of which the hinder is bent somewhat inwards and is more or less concave externally, thus forming a more complete outer wall.
The flowers have a hollow tube at the base bearing at its free edge five sepals, an equal number of petals, usually concave or spoon-shaped, pink or white, and a great number of stamens.
Rowland to his brilliant invention of concave gratings, by which spectra can be photographed without any further optical appliance.
2 " In the same way we may conclude that in flat gratings any departure from a straight line has the effect of causing the dust in the slit and the spectrum to have different foci - a fact sometimes observed " (Rowland, " On Concave Gratings for Optical Purposes," Phil.
In Rowland's dividing engine the screws were prepared by a special process devised by him, and the resulting gratings, plane and concave, have supplied the means for much of the best modern optical work.
The slopes of the position towards the Austrians now took on the usual concave section, and from the crest of the ridge every movement could be seen for miles.
Subsequently the digging plough came into vogue; the share being wider, a wider furrow is cut, while the slice is inverted by a short concave mould-board with a sharp turn which at the same time breaks up and pulverizes the soil after the fashion of a spade.
He seems to have been well acquainted with the projection of images of objects through small apertures, and to have been the first to show that the arrival of the image of an object at the concave surface of the common nerve - or the retina - corresponds with the passage of light from an object through an aperture in a darkened place, from which it falls upon a surface facing the aperture.
He also had some knowledge of the properties of concave and convex lenses and mirrors in forming images.
His arrangement of concave and plane mirrors, by which the realistic images of objects inside the house or in the street could be rendered visible though intangible, there alluded to, may apply to a camera on Cardan's principle or to a method of aerial projection by means of concave mirrors, which Bacon was quite familiar with, and indeed was known long before his time.
The account is not very clear, but seems to imply the use of a concave mirror rather than a lens, which might be suggested by the word orbem.
He refers to Maurolycus' work with concave specula.
He discloses as a great secret the use of a concave speculum in front of the aperture, to collect the rays passing through it, when the images will be seen reversed, but by prolonging them beyond the centre they would be seen larger and unreversed.
The lens used by Barbaro was an ordinary convex or old man's spectacle-glass; concave, he says, will not do.
In an Italian translation of Euclid's Optica, with commentary, Egnacio Danti (1573), after discussing the effects of plane, convex and concave reflectors, fully describes the method of showing reversed images passing through an aperture in a darkened room, and shows how, by placing a mirror behind the aperture, unreversed images might be obtained, both effects being illustrated by diagrams. F.
The use of the convex lens, which is given as a great secret, in place of the concave speculum of the first edition, is not so clearly described as by Barbaro; the addition of the concave speculum is proposed for making the images larger and clearer, and also for making them erect, but no details are given.
He describes some entertaining peep-show arrangements, possibly similar to Alberti's, and indicates how the dark chamber with a concave speculum can be used for observing eclipses.
He also demonstrates how enlarged images can be produced and projected on paper by using a concave lens at a suitable distance behind the convex, as in modern telephotographic lenses.
This was done in 1612 by Christoph Scheiner, who fully described his method of solar observation in the Rosa Ursina (1630), demonstrating very clearly and practically the advantages and disadvantages of using the camera, without a lens, with a single convex lens, and with a telescopic combination of convex object-glass and concave enlarging lens, the last arrangement being mounted with an adjustable screen or tablet on an equatorial stand.
One was a wooden box with a projecting tube in which a combination of a concave with a convex lens was fitted, for throwing an enlarged image upon the focusing screen, which in its proportions and application is very similar to our modern telephotographic objectives.
The vapour pressure-composition curve will now be concave to the axis of composition, the minima corresponding to the pure components.
Concave Lenses are used in the treatment of myopia or shortsight.
All objects, therefore, which lie beyond a certain point (the conjugate focus of the dioptric system of the eye, the far point) are indistinctly seen; rays from them have not the necessary divergence to be focused in the retina, but may obtain it by the interposition of suitable concave lenses.
Concave lenses should never be used for work within the far point; but they may be used in all cases to improve distant vision, and in very short-sighted persons to remove the far point so as to enable fine work such as sewing or reading to be done at a convenient distance.
The weakest pair of concave lenses with which one can read clearly test types at a distance of 18 ft.
The forms of roof are various, but mostly they commence in a steep slope at the top, gradually flattening towards the eaves so as to produce a slightly concave appearance, this concavity being rendered more emphatic by the tilt which is given to the eaves at the four corners.
3) the terms by which these parts are designated: The skin does not form eyelids; but the epidermis passes over the eye, forming a transparent disk, concave like the glass of a watch, behind which the eye moves.
Coelopeltis, with concave, or grooved scales; C. lacertina s.
Focal length, composed of a double concave flint lens and a double convex crown.
Rayleigh points out that this clinging of the sound to the surface of a concave wall does not depend on the exactness of the spherical form.
The pillars composing it are close-fitting and for the most part somewhat irregular hexagons, made up of articulated portions varying from a few inches to some feet in depth, and concave or convex at the upper and lower surfaces.
The umbrella-like body bears a circle of tentacles at the edge, whereby the body can be divided into a convex exumbrella or exumbral surface and a concave subumbrella or subumbral surface.
The swiftest current te,-ids, by reason of centrifugal force, to follow the outer side of every significant curve in the channel; hence the concave bank, against which the rapid current sweeps, is worn away; thus any chance irregularity is exaggerated, and in time a series of large serpentines or meanders is developed,, the most-symmetrical examples at present being those near Greenville, Miss.
Elsewhere moderate re-entrants between the ranges have a continuous beach, concave seaward; such re-entrants afford imperfect harbourage for vessels; Monterey Bay is the most pronounced example of this kind.
Another character by which the European domesticated pig differs from any of the wild species is the concave outline of the frontal region of the skull.
The under surface of the left lobe is concave for the interior surface of the stomach (see Alimentary Canal: Stomach Chamber), while a convexity, known as the tuber omentale, fits into the lesser curvature of that organ.
Avellanarius, the common dormouse, distinguished by the cylindrical bushy tail, and thickened glandular walls of the cardiac extremity of the oesophagus; thirdly, Eliomys, containing several species, with tufted and doubly vaned tails, simple stomachs and smaller molar teeth, having concave crowns and faintly marked enamel-folds; and lastly, the African Graphiurus, represented by several species, with short cylindrical tails ending in a pencil of hairs, and very small molars almost without trace of enamel-folds.
By introducing the concave grating which (see Diffraction Of Light, § 8) allows US to dispense with all lenses, Rowland produced a revolution in spectroscopic measurement.
Lyman more recently has been able to obtain photographs as far down as 1030 A with the help of a concave grating placed in vacuo.
In grating spectroscopes both plane and concave gratings are employed in connexion with a collimator and observing telescope.
He now compared the spiritual and bodily sides of a man to the concave and convex sides of a circle, as inner and outer sides of the same process, which is psychical as viewed from within and physical as viewed from without.