Comstock and J.
In 1859 the discovery of the famous Comstock Lode in Western Nevada led to the building of Virginia City, a prosperous community on the side of a mountain where human beings under ordinary conditions would not have lived, and eventually brought a new state into existence.
Mackay and his partners, Flood, Fair and O'Brien) in the Comstock Lode of the Great Bonanza mine, the average annual yield was over $26,000,000.
After this last year the output of the Comstock mines declined on account of the exhaustion of the ore supply, the increased expense of mining at great depths, and the decrease in the price of silver.
In connexion with the operation of the Comstock mines was built (in 1869-1879) the Sutro Tunnel, named in honour of its engineer, Adolph Sutro (1830-1898), piercing the mountain horizontally far below the mouth of the mines, and at a distance of nearly 4 m.
Striking the shafts of the Comstock Lode, securing ventilation and cool air for the miners, draining the mines above its level, and obviating much pumping and hoisting.'
With the working out of the deposits in the Comstock region, the mining industry declined, and between 1877 and 1900 there was a period of great depression, in which Nevada fell from first to sixth place among the silver-producing states and Territories.
In two years $7,000,000 worth of gold and silver had been taken from the Tonopah mines and it was asserted that they would prove as rich as the mines of the Comstock Lode.
In production of gold in 1907 Esmeralda county ranked first with $8,533,617 (nearly 70% of the total); Nye county's output was $1,547,408, Lincoln county's $929,775, ' Apart from their commercial uses, the Sutro Tunnel and the shafts of the Comstock Lode have been employed for scientific investigations, with the object of classifying igneous rocks, determining the variations of temperature, and the character of electrical manifestations beneath the earth's surface, and the relation between the structure of rocks and their rate of cooling.
It is met at several points by lines which serve the rich mining districts to the south; at Cobre by the Nevada Northern from Ely in White Pine county in the Robinson copper mining district; at Palisade by the Eureka & Palisade, a narrow-gauge railway, connecting with the lead and silver mines of the Eureka District; at Battle Mountain by the Nevada Central, also of narrow gauge, from Austin; at Hazen by the Nevada & California (controlled by the Southern Pacific) which runs to the California line, connecting in that state with other parts of the Southern Pacific system, and at Mina, Nevada, with the Tonopah & Goldfield, which runs to Tonopah and thence to Goldfield, thus giving these mining regions access to the Southern Pacific's transcontinental service; and at Reno, close to the western boundary, by the Virginia & Truckee, connecting with Carson City, Minden, in the Carson Valley, and Virginia City, in the Comstock District, and by the Nevada-California-Oregon, projected to run through north-eastern California into Oregon, in 1910, in operation to Alturas, California.
Shinn, The Story of the Mine as Illustrated by the Great Comstock Lode of Nevada, in The Story of the West " series (New York, 1896) The Silver Mines of Nevada (New York, 1864); M.
Comstock and C. Kochi (1902) and W.
Comstock and C. Kochi believe that the labrum belongs to it,, The appendages of the posterior three or trophal segments become the parts of the mouth.
Comstock and C. Kochi (American Naturalist, xxxvi., 1902); V.
In the Comstock mines at Virginia City, Nevada, it is possible to continue mining operations at rock temperatures of 130° F.
In the Alpine tunnels, where the air was moist and probably not as pure as in the Comstock mines, great difficulty was experienced in prosecuting the work at temperatures of 90° F.
The most powerful impulse to mining operations, and the immediate cause of a somewhat lengthy period of wild excitement and speculation, was the discovery and successful opening of the Comstock lode in 1859, in the western part of what is now Nevada, but was then part of Utah.
This was a stock speculation based on the remarkable output ($ 3 00,000,000 in 20 years) of the silver " bonanzas " of the Comstock lode at Virginia City, Nevada, which were opened and financed by San Francisco capitalists.
In April 1872 came the revulsion; there was a shrinkage of $60,000,000 in ten days; then in 1873 a tremendous advance, and in 1875 a final and disastrous collapse; in ten years thereafter the stock of the Comstock lode shrank from $3,000,000 to $2,000,000.
This Comstock fever belongs to Californian rather than to Nevadan history, and is one of the most extraordinary in mining annals.
James Lick (1796-1876), a cold man with few friends, who gave a great fortune to noble ends; and Adolph Sutro (1830-1898), famous for executing the Sutro Tunnel of the Comstock mines of Virginia City, Nevada, and the donor of various gifts to the city.
The United States came into prominence in about 1860, and the discovery of the famous Comstock lode in Nevada led to an enormous increase in the production.