The administrative staff includes, for the purpose of computing the individual quotas of the direct taxes, a director assisted by contrleurs in each department and subordinate to a central authority in Paris, the direction gnrale des contributions directes.
Political and ecclesiastical dissensions occupied the greatest intellects, and the only progress to be recorded is in the art of computing or arithmetic, and the trans pons asinorum of the earlier mathematicians.
His travels and mercantile experience had led E t u eopre him to conclude that the Hindu methods of computing were in advance of those then in general use, and in 1202 he published his Liber Abaci, which treats of both algebra and arithmetic. In this work, which is of great historical interest, since it was published about two centuries before the art of printing was discovered, he adopts the Arabic notation for numbers, and solves many problems, both arithmetical and algebraical.
O% over the value of the factory products in 1900; among its manufactures are tobacco, cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff (value in 1905, $2,879,217), patent medicines (value in 1905, $2,133,198), flour and grist mill products ($1,089,910), men's clothing ($ 8 33, 8 35), and, of less importance, commercial and computing scales and time recorders, chemicals, distilled liquor, beer, fire-alarm apparatus, overalls, agricultural implements, wagons, electrical apparatus, refined oil, sheet metal, paper bags and envelopes, tacks and nails, window glass, glass-ware, clocks, whips and furniture (especially Morris chairs).
As the Greek and Roman methods of computing time were connected with certain pagan rites and observances which the Christians held in abhorrence, the latter began at an early period to imitate the Jews in reckoning their years from the supposed period of the creation of the world.
(1764); Animadversions on Dr Stewart's Method of computing the Sun's Distance from the Earth (1771); Mathematical Memoirs (1780, 1789).
In eleven cases such enumerations have been taken; and on computing from them and the results of the federal census of 1880 what the population at the date of the eleventh census should have been, if the annual rate of increase had been uniform, it appears that in no case, except New York City and Oregon, was the difference between the enumerations and these estimates over 4%.
Reciprocal figures are easily drawn by following definite rules, and afford therefore a simple method of computing the stresses on members of a frame.
Six logarithms omitted in Schulze's work, and which Wolfram had been prevented from computing by a serious illness, were published subsequently, and the table as given by Vega is complete.
Besides religious books and teachings, he introduced in 1026 the method of computing time by cycles of sixty years, " obtained from the Indian province of Shambala."
Sundays and public holidays are usually excluded in computing time if they are the last day within which the act was to be done.
1844), the success of which led to his being summoned to Berlin in 1772 for the purpose of computing ephemerides on an improved plan.
By constructing several partial polygons, and computing the relations between the loads and resistances which are determined by the application of that theorem to each of them, with the aid, if necessary, of Moseleys principle of the least resistance, the whole of the relations amongst the loads and resistances may be found.
* Method of computing the position and magnitudes of balance weights which must be added to a given system of arbitrarily chosen rotating masses in order to make the common axis of rotation a permanent axis.The method here briefly explained, is taken from a paper by W.
Abbe succeeded in computing microscope objectives free from error of the axis point and satisfying the sine condition for several colours, which therefore, according to his definition, were " aplanatic for several colours "; such systems he termed " apochromatic."
In the case of factories and buildings used for storage purposes the maximum variable load which can be imposed for any serious length of time on each floor must be used without reduction in computing the loads of the lower column, and proper allowances must be made for vibrating loads.
In computing the column sections a proper allowance must be made for any eccentricity of loading.
The same necessity for computing shear and flexure applies to the floor beams. The floors between the girders are constructed of " I" beams, spaced generally about 5 ft.
They are also used as trade computing machines, as in the case of the machine made by the Computing Scale Company, Dayton, Ohio, U.S.A. In this machine the goods to be priced are placed on the platform of a small platform machine whose steelyard is adjusted to balance exactly the weight of the platform, levers and connexions.
- Price-computing Spring Weighing Machine.
Up to 2 lb the weight of the load is registered automatically on the chart in much the same manner as in the case of the automatic computing weighing machine already described.
- Price-computing Weighing Machine.
- Price-computing Weighing Machine - even Balance and Pendulum.
It follows that, if we go on computing the elements a, b, c, d from the actual values of x, y, x' and y', at each moment when the planet is subject to the attraction of another body, they will no longer be invariable, but will slowly vary from day to day and year to year.
During the twenty years following he devoted a large part of his energies to the numerical computation of the lunar inequalities, the redetermination of the elements of motion, and the preparation of new tables for computing the moon's position.
It is just as engineer and communication technology pioneer John Pierce said, in the quote I offered above: "After growing wildly for years, the field of computing appears to be reaching its infancy."
Distributed computing makes enormous computational problems affordable to solve.
Cloud computing and software frameworks such as Hadoop give unimagined computing power to the scientist on the most modest budget.
Cheap sensors, cloud computing, self-teaching algorithms with feedback loops and sufficient cycles to test a large number of techniques.
UC Berkeley created an open-source grid-computing platform called Boinc.