Moll JEthelwald, who may have been a brother of Eadberht, succeeded, and after a victory over a certain Oswine, who fell in the battle, abdicated and became a monk probably under compulsion in 765.
Service is nominally voluntary, though it appears that a certain amount of compulsion is exercised.
Government at the same time, as an Oriental despotism understands it, often has little in view but the gathering in of the tribute and compulsion of the subjects to personal service in the army or in royal works, and if satisfied in these respects will leave much independence to the local authorities.
We hear that Heraclea surrendered under compulsion to Hannibal in 212 B.C. and that in the Social war the public records were destroyed by fire.
The .Maccabaeans used compulsion in some cases, but Judaism in the Diaspora was a missionary religion in the less militant sense.
They were at first allowed religious freedom, but became Christians under compulsion in 1300.
By that year the natives from Portuguese territory and elsewhere who had found employment in Natal had been attracted to the Kimberley diamond mines, and the Natal natives not coming forward (save under compulsion), the importation of Indian coolies was again permitted (see the Natal Blue Book, Report of the Indian Immigration Cornmission, rgog).
Since the authority of the League rested primarily on the moral support of its members, allied in common trade interests and acquiescing in the able leadership of Lubeck, its only means of compulsion was the "Verhansung," or exclusion of a recalcitrant town from the benefits of the trade privileges of the League.
He did not succeed in his mission; he was subjected to the grossest insults; and under compulsion signed a treaty giving over the disputed territory to Bhutan, and making other concessions which the Bhutan government demanded.
Bukovina, the chief abode of the Austrian Rumanians, which they shared with the Ruthenians, offered the spectacle of a German adminstration in which without any compulsion German was the official language and also that of society, and neither efforts at Germanization nor language controversies were to be found.
Against this treaty Wellington protested, on the ground that it "specified means of compulsion which were neither more nor less than measures of war."
Moreover, after the knight's liability to personal service in war had been modified in the 12th century by the scutage system, it became necessary in the first quarter of the r3th to compel landowners to take up the knighthood which in theory they should have coveted as an honour - a compulsion which was soon systematically enforced (Distraint of Knighthood, 1278), and became a recognized source of royal income.
In those territories in which several races dwell, the public and educational institutions are to be so arranged that, without applying compulsion to learn a second Landessprache, each of the races receives the necessary means of education in its own language."
Under the guidance of Pericles Athens replied that she would do nothing on compulsion, but was prepared to submit difficulties to amicable arbitration on the basis of mutual concessions.
Converted to Roman Catholicism under compulsion, these "New Christians" often continued to observe Jewish rites in their homes, as the Inquisition records attest.
Compulsion of the population of occupied territory to take part in military operations against their own country, or even give information respecting the army of the other belligerent and pressure to take the oath to the hostile power are prohibited.
Jesuit missionaries after the Reformation stirred up schisms in some parts of the Eastern Church, and in Austria, Poland and elsewhere large numbers of Orthodox Christians submitted, either willingly or under compulsion to the see of Rome (see Roman Catholic Church, section Uniat Oriental Churches).
In both cases there is absorption and administration by the state of so much of the income of the community, and it may be a question whether the private ownership of the property would not be more expedient both for the state and its subjects than state ownership is, in spite of the apparent advantage to all concerned in the state getting so much of its income without the compulsion of a tax.
In the economic development of states taxes have come to be grouped in different ways, according to variations in the method of levying them or the means of enforcing compulsion or other differences.
The essence of the compulsion in the case of stamp duties is the invalidity of the documents in courts of law unless the stamp is affixed, besides liability to penalties for not affixing the proper stamps.
The reasonableness of the charge in a given case is to its credit, but the features of monopoly and compulsion on the tax-pa y er make the charges difficult to distinguish logically from other taxes.
To the attainment of virtue the best help is philosophy; for the philosopher does of his own accord what others do under the compulsion of law.
With the consent of "a general assembly of the chief representatives of the people" he commuted the burdensome land tax for a fixed money payment; he protected all castes in the celebration of their religious ceremonies; and he forbade any compulsion of natives to carry burdens against their will.
But when circumstances had overcome Mr. Asquith's antipathy to compulsion, Mr. Law took charge of the first military service bill in the House of Commons in Jan.
The essential thing was that a man should come to baptism of his own free will and not under compulsion or from hope of gain.
The Russians, on the contrary, ought according to tactics to have attacked in mass, but in fact they split up into small units, because their spirit had so risen that separate individuals, without orders, dealt blows at the French without needing any compulsion to induce them to expose themselves to hardships and dangers.
In all these cases the conception of freedom is increased or diminished and the conception of compulsion is correspondingly decreased or increased, according to the point of view from which the action is regarded.
If we have a large range of examples, if our observation is constantly directed to seeking the correlation of cause and effect in people's actions, their actions appear to us more under compulsion and less free the more correctly we connect the effects with the causes.