He was the son of Philip Livingston (1686-1749), and grandson of Robert Livingston (1654-1725), who was born at Ancrum, Scotland, emigrated to America about 1673, and received grants (beginning in 1686) to "Livingston Manor" (a tract of land on the Hudson, comprising the greater part of what are now Dutchess and Columbia counties).
ANGRA, or Angra Do Heroismo ("Bay of Heroism," a name given it in 1829, to commemorate its successful defence against the Miguelist party), the former capital of the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores, and chief town of an administrative district, comprising the islands of Terceira, St George and Graciosa.
M., and over a further area, comprising a zone of some 32 m., measured from any point on the shore of the bay, the Chinese government may not issue any ordinances without the consent of Germany.
The exports in 1898 were estimated at (480,000, the imports at (1,360,000, the former comprising agricultural produce, live stock, hides, wool, cheese, eggs, poultry, olive oil, valonia, sumach leaves, timber, skins of wild animals, silk, tobacco and salted fish, the latter manufactured articles, cloth, hardware, furniture, firearms, gunpowder, sugar, coffee, &c. The monopoly of Albanian commerce formerly possessed by Venice has descended to Austria-Hungary; the trade with other countries, except Italy, is inconsiderable.
The ecclesiastical unit in episcopacy is a diocese, comprising many churches and ruled by a prelate; in congregationalism it is a single church, self-governed and entirely independent of all others; in Presbyterianism it is a presbytery or council composed of ministers and elders representing all the churches within a specified district.
The army consists of: (1) The Line, comprising the Active and Reserve, in which all citizens 20 to 28 years of age are obliged to serve; (2) the National Guard, comprising citizens of 28 to 40 years; (3) the Territorial Guard, comprising those 40 to 45 years.
The local climates of France may be grouped under the following seven designations: (I) Sequan climate, characterizing the Seine basin and northern France, with a mean temperature of 500 F., the winters being cold, the summers mild; (2) Breton climate, with a mean temperature of 51-8 F., the winters being mild, the summers temperate, it is characterized by, west and south-west winds and frequent fine rains; (3) Girondin climate (characterizing Bordeaux, Agen, Pau, &c.), having a mean of 53.6 F., with mild winters and hot summers, the prevailing wind is from the north-west, the average rainfall about 28 in.; (4) Auvergne climate, comprising the Cvennes, central plateau, Clermont, Lirnoges anti Rodez, mean temperature 51.8 F., with cold winters and hot summers; (5) Vosges climate (comprehending Epinal, Mzires and Nancy), having a mean of 48.2 F., with long and severe winters and hot and rainy summers; (6) Rhne climate (experienced by Lyons, Chalon, Macon, Grenoble) mean temperature 5I~8 F., with cold and wet winters and hot summers, the prevailing winds are north and south; (7) Mediterranean climate, ruling at Valence, NImes, Nice and Marseilles, mean temperature, 57.5 F., with mild winters and hot and almost rainless summers.
Agricultural Organizalion.In France the interests of agriculture are entrusted to a special ministry, comprising the following divisions: (1) forests, (2) breeding-studs (haras); (3) agriculture, a department which supervises agricultural instruction and the distribution of grants and premiums; (4) agricultural improvements, draining, irrigation, &c.; (5) an intelligence department which prepares statistics, issues information as to prices and markets, &c. The minister is assisted by a superior council of agriculture, the members of which, numbering a hundred, include senators, deputies and prominent agriculturists.
The most wooded parts of France are the mountains Loire and plateaus of the east and of the north-east, comprising Seine the pine-forests of the Vosges and Jura (including the beau- Bouch~e tiful Forest of Chaux), the Forest of Haye, the Forest of Rhne Ardennes, the Forest of Argonne, &c.; the Landes, where M rth replanting with maritime pines has transformed large areas Ardenn of marsh into forest; and the departments of Var and Vos as Arige.
The department of Seine, comprising Paris and its suburbs, which has the largest manufacturing population, is largely occupied with the manufacture of dress, millinery and articles of luxury (perfumery, &c.), but it plays the leading part in almost every great branch of industry with the exception of Average Production (Thousands of Basins.
There are twelve ministriesi comprising those of justice; finance; war; the interior; marine; colonies; public instruction and fine arts; foreign affairs; commerce and industry; agriculture; public works; and labor and public thrift.
The Direction gnrale de lenregistrement, des domasnes et du timbre, comprising a central department and a director and staff of agents in each department, combines the administration of state property (not including forests) with the exaction of registration and stamp duties.
Other main sources of revenue are: the domains and forests managed by the state; government monopolies, comprising tobacco, matches, gunpowder; posts, telegraphs, telephones; and state f The tax on land (pro prils non Mties) and that on buildings (pro prietes bhties) are included under the head of contribution foncihre.
The policy adopted after 1890 of incorporating in the ordinary budget the expenditure on war, marine and public works, each under its own head, rendered the extraordinary budget obsolete, but there are still, besides the ordinary budget, budgets annexes, comprising the credits voted to certain establishments under state supervision, e.g.
The army corps consists of headquarters, 2 (or 3) infantry divisions, 1 cavalry i~igade, I artillery brigade (2 regiments, comprising 21 field and 2 horse batteries), I engineer battalion, &c. In war a group of Rimailho heavy howitzers (see ORDNANCE:
There is also an acadmie comprising Algeria.
Commercial and technical instruction is given in various institutions comprising national establishments such as the icoles nalionales professionnelles of Armentires, Vierzon, Voiron and Nantes for the education of working men; the more advanced coles darts et mtiers of Chlons, Angers, Aix, Lille and Cluny; and the Central School of Arts and Manufactures at Paris; schools depending on the communes and state in combination, e.g.
The colonies under the governor-general of West Africa are ruled by lieutenant-governors with restricted powers, the budget of each colony being fixed by the governor-general, who is assisted by an advisory government council comprising representatives of all the colonies under his control.
M., is so immense, that the moist air from the ocean does not come in sufficient supply, nor are there mountain chains to intercept the clouds which from time to time are formed; so that two-fifths of Australia, comprising a region stretching from the Australian Bight to 20° S.
M., comprising half of Queensland, the Northern Territory, and the northwestern divisions of Western Australia.
The whole of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia proper, half of Queensland, and more than half of Western Australia, comprising 1,801,700 sq.
The principal buildings are the church of St Lawrence in Gothic style, erected in 1821, and the mechanics' institute, a fine building, comprising class-rooms, a library, a.
These are as follow: (1) Mewar residency, with headquarters at Udaipur, comprising the states of Udaipur (Mewar), Dungarpur, Partabgarh and Banswara; (2) Jaipur residency, with headquarters at Jaipur, comprising the states of Jaipur and Kishangarh, with the estate of Lawa; (3) Western Rajputana states residency, with headquarters at Jodhpur, comprising the states of Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Sirohi; (4) Bikanir agency, with headquarters at Bikanir; (5) Alwar agency, with headquarters at Alwar; (6) Eastern Rajputana states agency, with headquarters at Bharatpur, comprising the states of Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauli; (7) Haraoti-Tonk agency, with headquarters at Deoli, comprising the states of Tonk and Bundi, with the estate of Shahpura; (8) Kotah-Jhalawar agency, with headquarters at Kotah, comprising the states of Kotah and Jhalawar.
Geologically considered, the country may be divided into three regions - a central, and the largest, comprising the whole width of the Aravalli system, formed of very old sub-metamorphic and gneissic rocks; an eastern region, with sharply defined boundary, along which the most ancient formations are abruptly replaced by the great basin of the Vindhyan strata, or are overlaid by the still more extensive spread of the Deccan trap, forming the plateau of Malwa; and a western region, of very ill-defined margin, in which, besides some rocks of undetermined age, it is more or less known or suspected that Tertiary and Secondary strata stretch across from Sind, beneath the sands of the desert, towards the flanks of the Aravallis.
His transmitter consists of a nearly closed oscillating circuit comprising a condenser or battery of Leyden jars, a spark gap, and the primary coil of an oscillation transformer consisting of one turn of thick wire wound on a wooden frame.
At a later date a syntonic system comprising, as above stated, an antenna directly coupled to a resonant closed circuit was put into operation by Lodge and Muirhead, and much the same methods have been followed in the system known as the Telefunken system employed in Germany.
When the methods for effecting this had been worked out practically it finally led to the inventions of Slaby, Braun and others being united into a system called the Telefunken system, which, as regards the transmitter, consisted in forming a closed oscillation circuit comprising a condenser, spark gap and inductance which at one point was attached either directly or through a condenser to the earth or to an equivalent balancing capacity, and at some other point to a suitably tuned antenna.
Of the nominally independent states the chief were the kingdom of Sardinia, ruled over by the house of Savoy, and comprising Piedmont, the isle of Sardinia and nominally Savoy and Nice, though the two provinces last named had virtually been lost to the monarchy since the campaign of 1793.
The general election of 1890 gave the cabinet an almost unwieldy majority, comprising four-fifths of the Chamber.
Rhayader constituted one of the group of boroughs comprising the Radnor parliamentary district until the Redistribution Act of 1885.
The group has until recent years been regarded as comprising three classes distinguished by well-marked physiological featuresthe Algae (including the Seaweeds) which contain chlorophyll, the Fungi which have no chlorophyll and therefore lead a saprophytic or parasitic mode of life, and the Lichens which are composite organisms consisting of an alga and a fungus living together in a mutual parasitism (symbiosis); Bacteria were regarded as a section of Fungi.
This takes account of - (I) the ArcticAlpine zone, including all the vegetation of the region bordering on perpetual snow; (2) the Boreal zone, including the temperate lands of North America, Europe and Asia, all of which are substantially alike in botanical character; (3) the Tropical zone, divided sharply into (a) the tropical zone of the New World, and (b) the tropical zone of the Old World, the forms of which differ in a significant degree; (4) the Austral zone, comprising all continental land south of the equator, and sharply divided into three regions the floras of which are strikingly distinct - (a) South American, (b) South African and (c) Australian; (5) the Oceanic, comprising all oceanic islands, the flora of which consists exclusively of forms whose seeds could be drifted undestroyed by ocean currents or carried by birds.
The metals comprising this group are never found in the uncombined condition, but occur most often in the form of carbonates and sulphates; they form oxides of the type RO, and in the case of calcium, strontium and barium, of the type R02.
All the existing Ratitae (with the exception of the ostriches of Africa and South America, belonging to the genera Struthio and Rhea, and comprising at most but five species) are found in Austrogaea and nowhere else.
It is difficult to subdivide the Neotropical region into subregions; the best suggestion is that of Newton: Antillean, with the exception of the islands of Trinidad and Tobago, as well as those which lie on the northern coast of South America; Patagonian, including Chile and part of Peru; Columbian, comprising the rest of the continent and also Central America.
The HoLARCTIC Region, comprising North America and the extratropical mass of land of the Old World, may from an ornithological point of view be characterized by the Colymbi, Alcidae, Gallidae or Alectoropodous Galli, and the Oscines, which have here reached their highest development; while Ratitae, Tinami, Psittaci, and non-Oscine Passeres (with the exception of Tyrannidae extending into North America and Conurus carolinensis) are absent.
The Malayan province comprising the Malay islands, besides the Malay peninsula, and the very remarkable Philippines, possess an extraordinary number of peculiar and interesting genera.
THE BRONX, formerly a district comprising several towns in Westchester county, New York, U.S.A., now (since 1898) the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City (q.v.).
The Carabidae, or ground-beetles, comprising 13,000 species, form FIG.
The Curculionidae, or weevils (q.v.), comprising 23,000 species, are by far the largest family of the group. The maxillary palps are short and rigid, and there is no distinct labrum, while the feelers are usually of an "elbowed" form, the basal segment being very elongate (figs.
Of the Caspian, comprising the lower Volga and the Ural and Emba rivers, and establishing a link between Russia and the Aral-Caspian region.
The distribution of all these is, however, very unequal, and the five following subdivisions may be established: - (T) the tundras; (2) the forest region; (3) the middle region, comprising the surface available for agriculture and partly covered with forests; (4) the black-earth (chernozyom) region; and (5) the steppes.
Modern Plymouth has varied and important manufactures comprising cordage, woollens, rubber goods, &c. In 1905 the total value of the factory products was $11,115,713, the worsted goods and cordage constituting about nine-tenths of the whole product.
Pop. (1866) 31,779, (1900) 33,607, comprising Great and Little Russians, Bulgarians, Jews and Gipsies.
The territory now comprising the state of Tennessee belonged to Carolina under the charters of 1663 and 1665, and fell to North Carolina when the original province was divided.
In addition to being the principal emporium for the Austrian traffic on the Elbe, Tetschen has a considerable industry, its products comprising chemicals, oil, soap, cotton stuffs, plaster of Paris, glazed and coloured paper, cellulose, beer, flour and preserved fish.
The population is about 6000, comprising descendants of some Georgians introduced by Shah Abbas I.
M., comprising the richest, the most populous and most civilized districts of India.
Viewed as a whole, the eastern half of this region, comprising Persia, Afghanistan and Baluchistan, is poor and unproductive.
The area between the southern border of Siberia and the margin of the temperate alpine zone of the Himalaya and north China, comprising what are commonly called central Asia, Turkestan, Mongolia and western Manchuria, is an almost rainless region, having winters of extreme severity and summers of intense heat.