The inclined tensions and compressions in the bars of a braced web are equivalent to this shear.
Whatever the form of a wave, we could always force it to travel on with that form unchanged, and with any velocity we chose, if we could apply any " external " force we liked to each particle, in addition to the " internal " force called into play by the compressions or extensions.
He supposed that in air Boyle's law holds in the extensions and compressions, or that p = kp, whence dp/dp = k = p/p. His value of the velocity in air is therefore U = iJ (p ip.) (Newton's formula).
Iii.) pointed out that the compressions and extensions in sound waves in air alternate so rapidly that there is no time for the temperature inequalities produced by them to spread.
If the figure be photographed as a lantern slide which is mounted so as to turn round, the wave motion is excellently shown on the screen, the compressions and extensions being represented by the crowding in and opening out of the lines.
When the air rushes out from one pipe, it has not to force its way into the open air, but finds a cavity being prepared for it close at hand in the other pipe, and so the extensions and compressions at the ends are more easily reduced.
There is ample proof throughout the country of alterations of level within recent geologic periods; and there have even been compressions, resulting in a relative rise of the ground, over the crests of anticlinal folds, within historic record.