Thayer, with other essays, 1889), originally a lecture, and in spite of the compression due to its form, up to that time probably the ablest defence, based on external evidence, of the Johannine authorship, and certainly the completest treatment of the relation of Justin Martyr to this gospel.
Nearly related is the extinct family Lophiodontidae (inclusive of the American Helaletidae), in which both the upper and lower first premolar may be absent, while the upper molars present a more rhinoceros-like form, owing to the lateral compression and consequent lengthening of the outer columns, of which the hinder is bent somewhat inwards and is more or less concave externally, thus forming a more complete outer wall.
From his views on centrifugal force he deduced the oblate figure of the earth, estimating its compression, however, at little more than one-half its actual amount.
The specific gravity of cast gold varies from 18.29 to 19.37, and by compression between dies the specific gravity may be raised from 19.37 to 19.41; by annealing, however, the previous density is to some extent recovered, as it is then found to be 19.40.
The brine is cooled in a tank filled with spiral pipes, in which anhydrous ammonia, previously liquefied by compression, is vaporized in vacuo at the atmospheric temperature by the sensible heat of the returncurrent of brine, whose temperature has been slightly raised in its passage through the circulating tubes.
The opposite axes are connected with springs which are kept in compression by tension of the rope in drawing but come into action when the pull is released, the side axes then biting into wooden guides or gripping those of steel bars or ropes.
The fact that a solid body in its natural state is capable both of compression and of dilatation indicates that the molecules of the body must not be supposed to be fixed rigidly in position relative to one another; the further fact that a motion of either compression or of dilatation is opposed by forces which are brought into play in the interior of the solid suggests that the position of rest is one in which the molecules are in stable equilibrium under their mutual forces.
If one end is sharply pressed in, a compression can be seen running along the spring.
Or we may take it as representing the pressure - excess over the normal pressure in compression, defect from it in extension.
When the value of dyldx is not very small E is no longer constant, but is rather greater in compression and rather less in extension than -yP. This can be seen by considering that the relation between p and is given by a curve and not by a straight line.
The consequence is that the compression travels rather faster, and the extension rather slower, than at the speed found above.
The term Pv/V added up for a complete wave vanishes, for P/V is constant and Zv=o, since on the whole the compression equals the extension.
For masonry, brick or concrete the arch subjected throughout to compression is the most natural form.
The concrete not only affords much of the strength to resist compression, but effectively protects the steel from corrosion.
Of the internal stresses, which balance the external forces, shows that most of the material should be arranged in a top flange, boom or chord, subjected to compression, and a bottom flange Or chord, subjected to tension.
The function of the flanges is to resist a horizontal tension and compression distributed practically uniformly on their cross sections.
In both England and America in early braced bridges cast iron, generally in the form of tubes circular or octagonal in section, was used for compression members, and wrought iron for the tension members.
In such rolling operations the girder is subjected to straining actions different from those which it is intended to resist, and parts intended for tension may be in compression; hence it may need to be stiffened by timber during rolling.
Hard steel, if used at all, is used only for compression members, in which there is less risk of flaws extending than in tension members.
O tons in verticals and long compression members.
In compression boom, 7 o tons in tension boom, 5 o tons in vertical struts, 6.5 tons in diagonal ties, 8 o tons in wind bracing, and 6.5 tons in cross and rail girders.
For practical purposes it is accurate enough to consider the booms or chords as carrying exclusively the horizontal tension and compression and the web as resisting the whole of the vertical and, in a plate web, the equal horizontal shearing forces.
If A t A, are the cross sections of the tension and compression flanges or chords, and h the distance between their mass centres, then on the assumption that they resist all the direct horizontal forces the total stress on each flange is Ht=H,=M/h and the intensity of stress of tension or compression is f t = M/Ath, f c = M/Ach.
The compression members are of timber, except the struts and bottom chord panels next the river piers, which are of steel.
The weight load was pushing downwards, causing pressure on the strut.
He sat rather sideways in the armchair next to the countess, arranging with his right hand the cleanest of gloves that fitted his left hand like a skin, and he spoke with a particularly refined compression of his lips about the amusements of the highest Petersburg society, recalling with mild irony old times in Moscow and Moscow acquaintances.