The mandarinate or official class is recruited from all ranks of the people by competitive examination.
He overflows with anecdotes, seldom indeed gets beyond the anecdotal stage, yet from this all study of nature must begin; and he sees everywhere intelligence and beauty, love and sociality, where a later view of nature insists primarily on mere adaptation of interests or purely competitive struggles.
In the competitive examination for the Indian civil service, places are allotted on the aggregate of marks obtained in a number of subjects selected by the candidate from a list of thirty-two.
With regard to the statement that the companies had installed competitive systems and had expended capital needlessly, it was found by the Post Office authorities that in 1865 less than 2000 m.
The competitive system was developed considerably at Louvain, and in the 15th century the candidates for the mastership of arts were divided into three classes (rigorosi, honour-men; transibiles, pass-men; gratiosi, charity-passes), while a fourth, which was not published, contained the names of those who failed.
Edgeworth, in two papers on " The Statistics of Examinations " and the " Element of Chance in Competitive Examinations " (Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 1888 and 1890), has dealt with the subject, although on somewhat limited lines.
Edgeworth, " The Statistics of Examinations," and " The Element of Chance in Competitive Examinations," Journal of the Statistical Society, 1888 and 1890 respectively; H.
In his words it was intended "to insure a more natural union between intellectual and manual labour than now exists; to combine the thinker and the worker, as far as possible, in the same individual; to guarantee the highest mental freedom by providing all with labour adapted to their tastes and talents, and securing to them the fruits of their industry; to do away with the necessity of menial services by opening the benefits of education and the profits of labour to all; and thus to prepare a society of liberal, intelligent and cultivated persons whose relations with each other would permit a more simple and wholesome life than can be led amidst the pressure of our competitive institutions."
In France there is a competitive examination for secondary teachers, the agregation, originally established in 1766.
In this department Schurz put in force his theories in regard to merit in the Civil Service, permitting no removals except for cause, and requiring competitive examinations for candidates for clerkships; he reformed the Indian Bureau and successfully opposed a bill transferring it to theWar Department; and he prosecuted land thieves and attracted public attention to the necessity of forest preservation.
Bullock, " Competitive Examinations in China " (Nineteenth Century, July 1894); and Etienne Zi, Pratique des examens litteraires en Chine (Shanghai, 1894).
In 1717 he was elected professor of mathematics in Marischal College, Aberdeen, as the result of a competitive examination.
The civil service commission, established in 1883, conducts competitive examinations for appointments to subordinafe positions under all of the administrative departments.
Collections of fruit grown in British Columbia have received premier honours at the competitive exhibitions of the Royal Horticultural Society in London, where their high quality and fine colour have been greatly appreciated.
Nevertheless the system of competitive examinations for appointments was introduced in some of the great executive departments in Washington, and in the custom-house and the post-office in New York.
The first public competitive examination for the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, took place in 1855, and in 1870 the principle of open competition for the civil service was adcpted as a general rule.
In the ' eighties, the country passed through a period of competitive building, which was productive of much financial disaster.
If they compete at some points and not at others, they produce a discrimination or preference with regard to rates and facilities, which builds up the competitive points at the expense of the non-competitive ones.
It was in 1875 that the Smithfield Club first provided the competitive classes for lambs, and in 1883 the champion plate offered for the best pen of sheep of any age in the show was for the first time won by lambs, a pen of Hampshire Downs.
In a direct competitive test the presence of 3.25% of nickel increased nearly sixfold the number of rotations which a steel shaft would endure before breaking.