21 1921 was one of the numerous achievements of Latvian diplomacy; but an attempt against the life of the ex-Premier Ulmanis and the opposition of the Social Democrats and Communists showed that the pacification necessary for a work of reconstruction had not yet been accomplished.
This outrage, which was traced to the Communists, provided fresh proof that the Democratic leader Draskovic, as Minister of the Interior, was justified in his charges of widespread terrorist conspiracy and even in the much debated Decrees (Obznane) by which he sought to combat them.
On the 4th of April 1871 he was arrested by the communists as a hostage, and confined in the prison at Mazas, from which he was transferred to La Roquette on the advance of the army of Versailles.
Three years after the expulsion of the Mormons Nauvoo was occupied by the remnant (some 250) of a colony of French communists, the Icarians, who had come out under the leadership of Etienne Cabet.
The Communists aimed at a dictatorship of the proletariat, the creation of workmen's and military councils and a close handin-hand cooperation with Soviet Russia.
In January 1879 he introduced into the chamber a proposal for the amnesty of the Communists, which was carried.
This Manifesto has remained a kind of gospel for extreme Communists, and its pronouncements served as a guidance in the attempt of the Russian Bolsheviks (Russian for" Majority "party) to create a Communist republic in Russia.
The execution, or rather murder, of Generals Lecomte and Clement Thomas by the communists on 18th March, which he vainly tried to prevent, brought him into collision with the central committee sitting at the hotel de Tulle, and they ordered his arrest, but he escaped; he was accused, however, by various witnesses, at the subsequent trial of the murderers (November 29th), of not having intervened when he might have done, and though he was cleared of this charge it led to a duel, for his share in which he was prosecuted and sentenced to a fine and a fortnight's imprisonment.
On the fall of Orlando he succeeded him as premier, but his administration was a weak one, the Socialists and Communists being allowed to commit innumerable acts of criminal violence with absolute immunity.
He passed an amnesty for the Communists, but in attempting to steer a middle course on the question of the religious associations, lost the support of Gambetta, and resigned in September 1880.