The French census uses the commune as the basis of its returns, and employs the following classifications in respect to communal population: (I) Total communal population.
Communal population minus the population compie a part.
Communal Finances.The budget of the commune is prepared by the mayor, voted by the municipal council and approved by the prefect.
But in communes the revenues of which exceed 120,000, the budget is always submitted to the president of the republic. The ordinary revenues include the produce of additional centimes allocated to communal purposes, the rents and profits of communal property, sums produced by municipal taxes and dues, concessions to gas, water and other companies, and by the octroi or duty on a variety of articles imported into the commune for local consumption.
Profits of the communal Monts de Piht (pawn-shops).
The two are spoken of as "brothers" with a communal assembly.
But the growth and development of the northern communal movement, though strong and instinct with life, was slower and less tempestuous than the Flemish.
Of the communal library, the cathedral and the church of S.
The principal elective local administrative bodies are the provincial and the communal councils.
The syndic of each commune is elected by ballot by the communal council from among its own members.
Most large towns contain important state or communal archives, iii which a considerable amount of research is being done by local investigators; the various societies for local history (Societd di Storia Patria) do very good work and issue valuable publications; the treasures which the archives contain are by no means exhausted.
Adding to this 1,240,000 of communal and provincial subsidies, the product of the labor of inmates, temporary subscriptions, &c., the net revenue available for charity was, during i88o, 3,860,000.
In addition to the regular charitable institutions, the communal and provincial authorities exercise charity, the former (in 1899) to the extent of 1,827,166 and the latter to the extent of 919,832 per annum.
The most important change introduced by the new law has been the creation in every province of a provincial administrative junta entrusted with the supervision of communal administrations, a function previously discharged by the provincial deputation.
The Italian local authorities, communes and provinces alike, have considerably increased their indebtedness since 1882, The ratio of communal and provincial debt per inhabitant has grown from 30.79 lire (~1, 4s.
In September 1907 disorders in Apulia over the repartition of communal lands broke out anew~ and were particularly serious at Ruvo, Ban, Cerignola and Satriano del Colle.
Property is communal and theft is only recognized as to things of absolute necessity, such as arrows, pigs' flesh and fire.
Romans has a tribunal of commerce and a communal college.
One of the former city gates (1615) remains, and there are a town hall, communal buildings (1863), court-house, weigh-house, synagogue and churches of various denominations, in one of which is the tomb of the naval hero of the 16th century, Lange, or Groote Pier (Long or Great Peter).
These elect a head-man (starosta) and a collector of taxes, who was responsible, at least until the ukaz of October 3906, which abolished communal responsibility for the payment of taxes, for the repartition among individuals of the taxes imposed on the commune.
In less developed creeds the difference tends to remain in the background; but where sacrifices are found, solemn annual rites, communal, purificatory or expiatory, are celebrated, and these are held to be in like manner obligatory.
Communal independence had probably been acquired as early as the end of the 10th century, but the first of the popes to reside in Orvieto and to recognize its communal administration was Hadrian IV.
The synagogue had become a firmly established institution, and the personal and social life of the masses had come under the control of communal law.
A Jew can avoid the communal tax only by formally declaring himself as outside the Jewish community.
The system of municipal and communal government remains practically unchanged.
"To be a soldier, just a soldier!" thought Pierre as he fell asleep, "to enter communal life completely, to be imbued by what makes them what they are.