The violent political commotions of the next few years allowed but little opportunity for the prosecution of serious studies; the subsequent quieter state of the country, and gradual re-establishment of the language as a means of education, were, however, more favourable to the development of scientific knowledge.
From 1844 Brazil was free from intestine commotions, and had resumed its activity.
Wars and civil commotions occupied the period of his minority and Savoy lost Freiburg and many other territories.
From 1437 till 1443 it had its seat at Greifswald in consequence of commotions at Rostock; and in 1760 it was again removed, on this occasion to Butzow.
In 1398, when Timur was more than sixty years of age, Farishta tells us that, "informed of the commotions and civil wars of India," he "began his expedition into that country," and on the 12th of September "arrived on the banks of the Indus."
Having rendered himself obnoxious to the government during the political commotions that followed the French Revolution, he was imprisoned for over a year; and on his release in 1795 he withdrew to France, only to return to his native country as a surgeon in the French army, whose progress he followed as far as Venice.
Weary of these commotions, the Arabs of Spain at last came to an understanding among themselves for the election of a caliph, and their choice fell upon one of the last survivors of the Omayyads, Abdarrahman b.
The sturdy Protestantism of Taylor and his flock, who seem to have caused various commotions, marked him out for the special enmity of Mary's government; and he was one of the first to suffer when in January 1 555 parliament had once more given the clerical courts liberty of jurisdiction.
Soon, however, the discontent caused by the oppressive Austrian rule, the disturbances in Germany leading to the Peasants' War and the commotions aroused by the Reformation gave Ulrich an opportunity to recover it.
His son Dionysius, known as "the Younger," succeeded in 367 B.C. He was driven from the kingdom by Dion (356) and fled to Locri; but during the commotions which followed Dion's assassination, he managed to make himself master of Syracuse.
During the civil commotions which so long afflicted the country, it suffered less than most other places; and it soon afterwards attained the rank of the richest commercial town in the north of Ireland.
The year following he went as legate into Germany, to quiet the commotions raised by Luther.
In 1807 it became the capital of the kingdom of Westphalia; in 1813 it was bombarded and captured by the Russian general Chernichev; in 1830, 1831 and 1848 it was the scene of violent commotions; from 1850 to 1851 it was occupied by the Prussians, the Bavarians and the Austrians; in 1866 it was occupied by the Prussians, and in 1867 was made the capital of the newly formed Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau.
Declared the king of age, but this was a mere formality, intended to justify the resumption of the royal castles and demesnes which had passed into private hands during the commotions of the civil war.