In 1831 he published his History of England, AngloSaxon Period, later editions of which were published as History of the Anglo-Saxons; in 1832, his Rise and Progress of the English Commonwealth, pronounced by Freeman a "memorable book"; and in 1834 his Essay upon the original authority of the king's council.
Naval defence in any case remained primarily a question for the Imperial navy, and by agreement (1903, for ten years) between the British government and the governments of the Commonwealth (contributing an annual subsidy of £200,000) and of New Zealand (£40,000), an efficient fleet patrolled the Australasian waters, Sydney, its headquarters, being ranked as a first-class naval station.
At the end of 1908 the strength of the naval forces under the Commonwealth defence department was: permanent, 217, naval militia, 1016; the estimated expenditure for 1908-1909 being £63,531.
There are some 6686 post-offices throughout the Commonwealth, or about one office to every 600 persons.
- Australian public finance requires to be treated under the separate headings of Commonwealth and states finance.
Under the Constitution Act the Commonwealth is given the control of the postal and telegraph departments, public defence and several other services, as well as the power of levying customs and excise duties; its powers of taxation are unrestricted, but so far no taxes Dave been imposed other than those just mentioned.
Including the total receipts derived from the customs, the Commonwealth revenue, during the year 1906, was made up as follows: Customs and excise £8,999,485 Posts, telegraphs, &c..
2,824,182 Other revenue 55,676 £11,879,343 The return made to the states was £7,385,731, so that the actual revenue disposed of by the Commonwealth was less by that amount, or £4,493,612.
£4,494,841 The states have the same powers of taxation as the Commonwealth except in regard to customs and excise, over which the Commonwealth has exclusive power, but the states are the owners of the crown lands, and the revenues derived from this source form an important part of their income.
The states have a total revenue, from sources apart from the Commonwealth, of £23,820,439, and if to this be added the return of customs duties made by the federal government, the total revenue is £31,206,170.
Although the financial operations of the Commonwealth and the states are quite distinct, a statement of the total revenue of the Australian Commonwealth and states is not without interest as showing the weight of taxation and the different sources from which revenue is obtained.
In conformity with this determination the various state legislatures enacted new laws or amended the existing laws to cope with the difficulty; these remained until they were in effect superseded by Commonwealth legislation.
It was provided that a person was to be prohibited from landing in Australia who failed to write in any prescribed language fifty words dictated to him by the commonwealth officer supervising immigration.
Under this act, which was dated the 9th of July 1900, a proclamation was issued on the 17th of September of the same year, declaring that, on and after the 1st of January 1901, the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, Tasmania and Western Australia should be united in a federal commonwealth under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia.
The six colonies entering the Commonwealth were denominated original states, and new states might be admitted, or might be formed by separation from or union of two or more states or parts of states; and territories (as distinguished from Provisions states) might be taken over and governed under the legis- of the Act lative power of the Commonwealth.
Within two years uniform customs duties were to be imposed; thereafter the parliament of the Commonwealth had exclusive power to impose customs and excise duties, or to grant bounties; and trade within the Commonwealth was to be absolutely free.
The choice of governor-general of the new Commonwealth fell upon Lord Hopetoun (afterwards Lord Linlithgow), who had won golden opinions as governor of Victoria a few years before; Mr (afterwards Sir Edmund) Barton, who had taken the lead among the Australian delegates, became first prime minister; and the Commonwealth was inaugurated at the opening of 1901.
On the formation of the Commonwealth a Labour party was established in the federal houses.
The Labour party held power in the Commonwealth for a short period, and has had the balance of power in its hands ever since the formation of the Commonwealth.
It was the same question that formed the chief subject of debate over the Federal Conciliation and Arbitration Act, which, after causing the defeat of more than one ministry, passed through the Commonwealth parliament in 1904.
The Commonwealth legislation thus made provision for the aged poor in the three states which up to 1908 had not accepted the principle of old age pensions, and also for those who, owing to their having resided in more than one state, were debarred from receiving pension in any.
The great task of adjusting the financial business of the Commonwealth on a permanent basis was one of very great difficulty, as the apparent interests of the states and of the Commonwealth were opposed.
Up till 1908 it had been generally assumed that the constitution required the treasurer of the Commonwealth to hand over to the states month by month whatever surplus funds remained in his hands.
The chief external interest, however, of the new financial policy of the Commonwealth lay in its relation towards the empire as a whole.
Garran, The Coming Commonwealth: a Handbook of Federal Government (Sydney, 1897); George William Rusden, History of Australia, 3 vols.
P. Tregarthen, Commonwealth of Australia; Ida Lee, Early Days of Australia; W.
Irish in a league against the supporters of the parliament, and only a few scattered forts held out for the Commonwealth, while the young king was every day expected to land and complete the conquest of the island.
"It is strange," wrote Pepys in 1667 under a different regime, "how everybody nowadays reflect upon Oliver and Cromwell to the authority of the Commonwealth and the Navi a S' g empire.
Of England (1883-1884) and of the Great Civil War (1886), Cromwell's Place in History (1897), Oliver Cromwell (1901), and History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate (1894-1903); Cromwell, by C. H.
Bowman (1900); Cromwell's Jewish Intelligencies (1891), Crypto-Jews under the Commonwealth (1894), Menasseh Ben Israel's Mission to Oliver Cromwell (1901), by L.
The constitution of the commonwealth had slowly matured itself through a series of revolutions, which confirmed and defined a type of singular stability.
The history of the Roman commonwealth illustrates this perhaps better than any other.'
It is a minority, a minority strictly marked out by birth from other members of the commonwealth, a minority which seems further, though this point is less clearly marked, to have had on the whole the advantage in point of wealth.
Their exclusive possession of power made the commonwealth in which they bore rule an aristocracy; but they were a democracy among themselves.
If so, there would be no place in Athens for those great plebeian houses, once patrician in some other commonwealth, out of which the later Roman nobilitas was so largely formed.
The commune of Venice, the ancient style of the commonwealth, changed into the seigniory of Venice.
But in the Venetian commonwealth the nobility was a real aristocracy.
It is only in a commonwealth that a nobility can really rule; that is, it is only in a commonwealth that the nobility can really be an aristocracy.
And even in a democratic commonwealth the sentiment of nobility may exist, though all legal privilege has been abolished or has never existed.
The anarchy of the last months of the commonwealth converted him to royalism, and he showed great activity in bringing about the Restoration.
During the commonwealth and empire aes grave was used to denote the old as in contradistinction to the existing depreciated coin; while aes rude was applied to the original oblong coinage of primitive times.
There were few Jews in England from that date till the Commonwealth, but Jews settled in the American colonies earlier in the 17th century, and rendered considerable services in the advancement of English commerce.
Sikes, The Transition of North Carolina from Colony to Commonwealth (Baltimore, 1898), based on the public records, is accurate, though dull.
All Boehme's works were translated into English in the time of the Commonwealth, and regular societies of Boehmenists were formed in England and Holland.
He served in various capacities in the Civil War, and in1865-1867was a member of the state House of Representatives, becoming secretary of the commonwealth in1873-1878and again in 1879-1882, recorder of Philadelphia in 1878-1879, and state treasurer in 1886-1887.
Other elective officers are the mayor, city treasurer, city sergeant, commonwealth attorney, city collector, city auditor, sheriff and high constable, elected for four years; and clerks of the various courts elected for eight years.
A great many works on agriculture appeared during the time of the Commonwealth, of which Walter Blith's Improver Improved and Samuel Hartlib's Legacie are the most valuable.
Commonwealth Avenue, one of the Back Bay streets running from the foot of the Public Garden, is one of the finest residence streets of the country.
The park system consists of two concentric rings, the inner being the city system proper, the outer the metropolitan system undertaken by the commonwealth in co-operation with the city.
The great majority of names in the long list of worthies of the commonwealth-writers, statesmen, orators, artists, philanthropists, reformers and scholars, are intimately connected with Boston.