In 1766 he was called upon to give evidence before a committee of the House of Commons upon the affairs of Bengal.
During a long and active life, he played many parts: professor of mathematics at the Elphinstone college (1854) founder of the Rast Goftar newspaper; partner in a Parsi business firm in London (1855); prime minister of Baroda (1874); member of the Bombay legislative council (1885); M.P. for Central Finsbury (1892-1895), being the first Indian to be elected to the House of Commons; three times president of the Indian National Congress.
His repugnance to public life had been strongly expressed to his father in a letter of a very early date, in which he begged that the money which a seat in the House of Commons would cost might be expended in a mode more agreeable to him.
Ten lords, twenty members of the House of Commons, and one hundred and twentyone ministers.
In 1892 he became a member of the British House of Commons as an Irish Nationalist, being elected for South Longford.
They provided for a head and 70 scholars, but the latter were divided into 40 fellows and 30 scholars called demies, because their commons were half .those of the fellows.
An ardent opponent of Catholic Emancipation, he delivered in 1807 a speech on the subject which helped to give the deathblow to the Grenville administration, upon which he became chancellor of the exchequer under the duke of Portland, whom in 1809 he succeeded in the premiership. Notwithstanding that he had the assistance in the cabinet of no statesman of the first rank, he succeeded in retaining office till he was shot by a man named Bellingham, a bankrupt with a grievance, who had vainly applied to him for redress, in the lobby of the House of Commons on the 11th of May 1812.
Upon the refusal in November of the Lords to concur in the address of the Commons requesting the removal of the queen from court, he joined in a protest against the refusal, and was foremost in all the violent acts of the session.
He urged on the bill by which Catholics were prohibited from sitting in either House of Parliament, and was bitter in his expressions of disappointment when the Commons passed a proviso excepting James, against whom the bill was especially aimed, from its operation.
On the 15th of November the Exclusion Bill, having passed the Commons, was brought up to the Lords, and an historic debate took place, in which Halifax and Shaftesbury were the leaders on opposite sides.
The action of the Commons in 1584, stimulated by the opposition of the Lords, showed that the principles of Presbyterianism were strongly held.
Although holding an office of subordinate rank, he was the chief defender of the government in the House of Commons, and during the time that Pitt was in opposition had to bear the brunt of his attacks.
In 1754 he became attorney-general, and for the next two years acted as leader of the House of Commons under the administration of the duke of Newcastle.
Macaulay terms, him, justly enough, "the father of modern Toryism, of Toryism modified to suit an order of things in which the House of Commons is the most powerful body in the state."
In the House of Commons his acute reasoning made a considerable impression, and under successive Liberal ministries (1853-1858) he obtained official experience as secretary of the Board of Control and vice-president of the Board of Trade.
Against enclosures by the earl of Manchester, obtaining a commission of the House of Commons to inquire into the case, and drawing upon himself the severe censure of the chairman, the future Lord Clarendon, by his "impetuous carriage" and "insolent behaviour," and by the passionate vehemence he imparted into the business.
The lords and the Scots vehemently took Manchester's part; but the Commons eventually sided with Cromwell, appointed Sir Thomas Fairfax general of the New Model Army, and passed two self-denying ordinances, the second of which, ordering all members of both houses to lay down their commissions within forty days, was accepted by the lords on the 3rd of April 1645.
These votes, however, were cancelled later, on the 26th of July, under the pressure of the royalist city mob which invaded the two Houses; but the two speakers, with eight peers and fifty-seven members of the Commons, themselves joined the army, which now advanced to London, overawing all resistance, escorting the fugitive members in triumph to Westminster on the 6th of August, and obliging the parliament on the 10th to cancel the last votes, with the threat of a regiment of cavalry drawn up by Cromwell in Hyde Park.
On the 28th he was sent to Ely for the defence of the eastern counties against the king's advance; and on the 10th of June, upon Fairfax's petition, he was named by the Commons lieutenant-general, joining Fairfax on the 13th with six hundred horse.
The parliament, however, continued to negotiate, and accordingly Charles was removed by the army to Hurst Castle on the 1st of December, the troops occupied London on the 2nd; while on the 6th and 7th Colonel Pride "purged" the House of Commons of the Presbyterians.
The ordinance establishing the special tribunal for the trial was passed by a remnant of the House of Commons alone, from which all dissentients were excluded by the army.
By 1868 both political parties in the House of Commons had committed themselves to the policy of state purchase of the telegraphs.
Hanbury, Financial Secretary to the Treasury and representative in the House of Commons of the PostmasterGeneral, advocated the granting of licences to local authorities.
Reports of Select Committee on Telephone and Telegraph Wires (1885), of Select Committee on Telegraph Bill (1892), of Joint Committee of the House of Lords and the House of Commons on Electric Powers (Protective Clauses) (1893), of Select Committee on Telephone Service (1895), of Select Committee on Telephones (1898), and of Select Committee on Post Office (Telephone) Agreement (1905); Treasury Minutes (1892 and 1899); Annual Reports of the Postmaster-General; Report to the Treasury by Sheriff Andrew Jameson on Glasgow Telephone Enquiry (1897); H.
He obtained a seat in parliament; and in spite of Danby's endeavour to seize his papers by an order in council, on the 10th of December 1678 caused two of the incriminating letters written by Danby to him to be read aloud to the House of Commons by the Speaker.
He was voted guilty by the Commons; but while the Lords were disputing whether the accused peer should have bail, and whether the charges amounted to more than a misdemeanour, parliament was prorogued on the 30th of December and dissolved three weeks later.
7 His proposed advancement in rank was severely reflected upon in the Lords, Halifax declaring it in the king's presence the recompense of treason, "not to be borne"; and in the Commons his retirement from office by no means appeased his antagonists.
This declaration was again repeated by the Commons in 1689 on the occasion of another attack made upon Danby in that year, and was finally embodied in the Act of Settlement in 1701.
The Commons now demanded judgment against the prisoner from the Lords.
Halifax and the Commons in declaring the prince and princess joint sovereigns.
In April 1695 he was impeached once more by the Commons for having received a bribe of 5000 guineas to procure the new charter for the East India Company.
Finally the city of London - not only as the converted champion of religious liberty but as the convinced apologist of the Jews - sent Baron Lionel de Rothschild to knock at the door of the unconverted House of Commons as parliamentary representative of the first city in the world " (Wolf, loc. cit.).
A fair proportion of Jews have been elected to the House of Commons, and Mr Herbert Samuel rose to cabinet rank in 1909.
His independent attitude drew upon him an attack by Dangerfield, and in the Commons by the attorney-general, Sir W.
He sat in the House of Commons for North Lanarkshire from 1886 to 1892, and during this period became known as an extreme Socialist, taking part with H.
The plebs, like the English commons, contained families differing widely in rank and social position, among them those families which, as soon as an artificial barrier broke down, joined with the patricians to form the new older settlement, a nobility which had once been the whole people, was gradually shorn of all exclusive privilege, and driven to share equal rights with a new people which had grown up around it.
The cause of the difference seems to be that, while the origin of the patriciate was exactly the same at Rome and at Athens, the origin of the commons was different.
But something like a new nobility presently grew up among the commons themselves; there were popolani grossi at Florence just as there were noble plebeians at Rome.
Only the Roman commons, great and small, never shut out the patricians from office; they were satisfied to share office with them.
Short in stature and uncouth in appearance, his individuality first shocked and then by its earnestness impressed the House of Commons; and his sturdy independence of party ties, combined with a gift of rough but genuine eloquence (of which his speech on the Royal Title Bill of 1876 was an example), rapidly made him one of the best-known public men in the country.
(4) That no pardon under the great seal of England be pleadable to an impeachment by the Commons in parliament.
In 1858 he resumed this office in Lord Derby's second administration, being returned to the House of Commons as member for Stamford.