The same year he was named one of the justices of the peace for his borough; and on the grant of a new charter showed great zeal in defending the rights of the commoners, and succeeded in procuring an alteration in the charter in their favour, exhibiting much warmth of temper during the dispute and being committed to custody by the privy council for angry words spoken against the mayor, for which he afterwards apologized.
He also defended the rights of the commoners of Ely threatened by the "adventurers" who had drained the Great Level, and he was nicknamed afterwards by a royalist newspaper "Lord of the Fens."
The esquires, knights, lesser barons, even the remote descendants of peers, that is, the noblesse of other countries, in England remained gentlemen, but not noblemen - simple commoners, that is, without legal advantage over their fellowcommoners who had no jus imaginum to boast of.
Hence their attachment to Peisistratus, the "man of the people," who called upon them to sweep away the last barriers which separated rich and poor, nobles and commoners, city and countryside.
The effect of this was that in January 1835 the legislature passed a bill for submitting the question legally to all the voters of the state, although this bill itself limited the proposed convention's power relating to representation by providing that it should so amend the constitution that senators be chosen by districts according to public taxes, and that commoners be apportioned by districts according to Federal representation, i.e.
The number of senators was reduced to 50, the number of commoners to 120, and the manner of choosing senators and commoners was changed as directed in the act providing for the convention.
The mayor and aldermen apparelled in orient-grained scarlet, and four hundred commoners in murrey, well mounted, with rich collars and chains, met the king at Blackheath.
The netsuke and the pipe, with all that pertained to it, were for the commoners what the sword-hilt and guard were for the gentry.
Fellow-commoners, who have decreased in numbers in modern times, pay higher fees than the ordinary undergraduates or pensioners, and have certain advantages of precedence, including the right of dining at the fellows' table.
He established himself as a private tutor in Paris, and presently set up a school for the army at Versailles, which was attended by commoners as well as nobles.
At Cambridge in 1774 Fellow Commoners were examined with such precipitation to fulfil the formal requirements of the statutes that the ceremony was termed " huddling for a degree " (Jebb, Remarks upon the Present Mode of Education in the University of Cambridge, 4th ed., 1 774, p. 32).
These commoners might be the several owners, the inhabitants of a parish, freemen of a borough, tenants of a manor, &c. The opening of the fields by throwing down the fences took place on Lammas Day (12th of August) for corn-lands and on Old Midsummer Day (6th of July) for grass.
The children of the sovereign other than his eldest son, though by courtesy " princes " and " princesses, " need a royal warrant to raise them de jure above the common herd; and even then, though they be dubbed " Royal Highness " in their cradles, they remain " commoners " till raised to the peerage.
In general, however, especially in later years, he opposed reform: he defended the tutorial system, and in a controversy with Thirlwall (1834) opposed the admission of Dissenters; he upheld the clerical fellowship system, the privileged class of fellow-commoners,"and the authority of heads of colleges in university affairs.
Native society in Imerina among the Hova was formerly divided into three great classes: the Andriana, or nobles; the Hova, freemen or commoners; and the Andevo, or slaves; but these last became free by a proclamation issued in 1896.
The Hova 2 or commoners form the mass of the population of Imerina.