7539), dedicated to an emperor, probably Commodus - but the inscription is only in part preserved.
Hadrian adopted, as his successor, Titus Antoninus Pius (uncle of Marcus), on condition that he in turn adopted both Marcus (then seventeen) and Lucius Ceionius Commodus, the son of Aelius Caesar, who had originally been intended by Hadrian as his successor, but had died before him.
Marcus had been, at the age of fifteen, betrothed to Fabia, the sister of Commodus; the engagement was broken off by Antoninus Pius, and he was betrothed to Faustina, the daughter of the latter.
Antoninus Pius died in 161, having recommended as his successor Aurelius, then forty years of age, without mentioning Commodus, his other adopted son, commonly called Lucius Verus.
Along with his son Commodus he entered Rome in 176, and obtained a triumph for victories in Germany.
Other accounts are: (1) that he was poisoned in the interests of Commodus (Dio.
Commodus, who was with his father when he died, erected to his memory the Antonine column (now in the Piazza Colonna at Rome), round the shaft of which are sculptures in relief commemorating the miracle of the Thundering Legion and the various victories of Aurelius over the Quadi and the Marcomanni.
It is believed by many critics that they were intended for the guidance of Aurelius's son, Commodus (q.v.); at all events they are generally considered as one of the most precious of the legacies of antiquity.
Ceionius Commodus under the name of L.
Ceionius Commodus (afterwards the emperor Commodus).
In the Stromateis, while attempting to show that the Jewish Scriptures were older than any writings of the Greeks, he invariably brings down his dates to the death of Commodus, a circumstance which at once suggests that he wrote in the reign of the emperor Severus, from 193 to 211 A.D.
From the time of Commodus, who participated in its mysteries, its supporters were to be found in all classes.
During the reign of Commodus, Dio practised as an advocate at the Roman bar, and held the offices of aedile and quaestor.
This arch appears on Roman coins from Augustus to Commodus; according to Pausanias it bore two four-horse chariots, one driven by Helios and the other by Phaethon, his son, all in gilded bronze.
LUCIUS AELIUS AURELIUS COMMODUS (161-192), also called Marcus Antoninus, emperor of Rome, son of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina, was born at Lanuvium on the 31st of August 161.
The first years of his reign were uneventful, but in 183 he was attacked by an assassin at the instigation of his sister Lucilla and many members of the senate, which felt deeply insulted by the contemptuous manner in which Commodus treated it.
At the same time Commodus, proud of his bodily strength and dexterity, exhibited himself in the arena, slew wild animals and fought with gladiators, and commanded that he should be worshipped as the Roman Hercules.
In 1874 a statue of Commodus was dug up at Rome, in which he is represented as Hercules - a lion's skin on his head, a club in his right and the apples of the Hesperides in his left hand.
Hence a knowledge of law became a qualification for the post, which under Marcus Antoninus and Commodus, but especially from the time of Severus, was held by the first jurists of the age, (e.g.
Even in ancient times it was famous for its groves of bay-trees (laurus) from which its name was perhaps derived, and which in imperial times gave the villas of its territory a name for salubrity, so that both Vitellius and Commodus resorted there.
Commodus held the title of duumvir quinquennalis.
During these years Commodus was associated with Marcus in the imperium, and.
Both Irenaeus and Epiphanius describe him as a Jewish proselyte, but while the former calls him an Ephesian and mentions his translation before that of Aquila, the latter states that he was a native of Pontus and a follower of Marcion, and further assigns his work to the reign of Commodus (A.D.
His activity as a jurist in Rome must fall within the period of Commodus; for there is no indication in his writings that he was in Rome in the time of Marcus Aurelius, and many passages seem to preclude the supposition.
The government of Commodus, feeble in itself and vexed by many troubles, could not repair the loss, and the civil wars which soon raged in Europe (193-197) gave the Caledonians further chance.
Similarly Hippolytus, who lived in the reign of Commodus (A.D.
The inscription on the work describes it as the "Embassy of Athenagoras, the Athenian, a philosopher and a Christian concerning the Christians, to the Emperors Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus, &c."
Suidas only tells us that he lived "in the times of Marcus"; but the contempt with which he speaks of Commodus (died 192) shows that he survived that emperor.
Peace was made by the emperor Commodus in A.D.
Commodus had Olympic games celebrated at Antioch, and in A.D.
6; Lives of Marcus Aurelius, Verus and Commodus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, and the special biography of Avidius Cassius in the same by Vulcacius Gallicanus.
But while he gives a lively account of external events - such as the death of Commodus and the assassination of Pertinaxthe barbarian invasions, the spread of Christianity, the extension of the franchise by Caracalla are unnoticed.
37); and even under Commodus (A.D.
Ruins and inscriptions may be seen at Resca, a temple at Slaveni, villas and a statue of the emperor Commodus (A.D.
The lives, which (with few exceptions) are arranged in chronological order, are distributed as follows: - To Spartianus: the biographies of Hadrian, Aelius Verus, Didius Julianus, Septimius Severus, Pescennius Niger, Caracallus, Geta (?); to Vulcacius Gallicanus: Avidius Cassius; to Capitolinus: Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Verus, Pertinax, Clodius Albinus, the two Maximins, the three Gordians, Maximus and Balbinus, Opilius Macrinus (?); to Lampridius: Commodus, Diadumenus, Elagabalus, Alexander Severus; to Pollio: the two Valerians, the Gallieni, the so-called Thirty Tyrants or Usurpers, Claudius (his lives of Philip, Decius, and Gallus being lost); to Vopiscus: Aurelian, Tacitus, Florian, Probus, the four tyrants (Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus, Bonosus), Carus, Numerian, Carinus.