" Money and commodities are the real strength of any community."
Since ale and beer have become excisable commodities the custom of appointing ale-tasters has in most places fallen into disuse.
The commodities otherwise mostly dealt in are opium, tea, rice, oil, raw cotton, fish and silk.
(This is the interpretation adopted by Dubois, pp. 86, 92, following Dittenberger.) We find other Eastern merchants resident here - merchants from Heliopolis, Berytus (Beirut), Nabataea, Palestine, and from Asia Minor, Greece, &c. We find far less trace of commercial relations with the West, though there was considerable importation of commodities from southern Spain - wine, oil, metals, salt fish, &c., while a good ` deal of pottery was exported to Spain and southern Gaul.
His "theorie des debouches" amounts to this, that, products being, in last analysis, purchased only with products, the extent of the markets (or outlets) for home products is proportional to the quantity of foreign productions; when the sale of any commodity is dull, it is because there is not a sufficient number, or rather value, of other commodities produced with which it could be purchased.
The labour statistics published by the department are exhaustive, dealing with hours of labour, the state of the labour market, the condition of the working classes and the prices of commodities; annual reports are also ' Since 1882 there have been only two occasions on which the president of the board was not included in the cabinet.
The old Austria was very richly provided with raw materials; the coal and iron supply was especially rich; in the years immediately preceding the war the production of these two commodities followed in general a rising curve.
The average prices per kilogram of certain commodities in Lower Austria are shown in Table IX.: TABLE IX.-Average Food Prices (heller per kilogram).
This very cheapening of many commodities in 1913, side by side with which went also a cheapening of many manufactured articles, was indicated as the sign of a decline in the power of consumption of the population.
This factor was the rupture of communications with foreign countries, due in the earlier stages of the war to the limitation, and at one time the prohibition, of exports by neutral countries, the passing over of some of these countries to the enemy, and lastly the blockade by the enemy Powers, which increased in efficiency and made it more and more difficult to import the most essential commodities, until in the end it was almost impossible to obtain from abroad anything, needed either for the soldiers or the civilians.
The chief commodities of trade arc coal, grain, lumber, flour and various products of the city's own manufactories.
HOGSHEAD, a cask for holding liquor or other commodities, such as tobacco, sugar, molasses, &c.; also a liquid measure of capacity, varying with the contents.
In 1803 a commission met to consider the state of the Dutch colonies, and advocated drastic administrative and commercial reforms, notably freedom' of trade in all commodities except firearms, opium, rice and wood - with coffee, pepper and spices, which were state monopolies.
The great mass of manufactured commodities were produced in the United Kingdom more cheaply than in foreign countries, and would not have been imported, with duty or without, except in sporadic amounts for some special qualities.
In the treaty as finally framed duties on most manufactured commodities were reduced to a range of 1 0 or 15 per cent., some iron manufactures, however, being left at slightly higher rates.
The trend of the tariff policy of the Zollverein for some time after 1834 was towards protection; partly because the specific duties of 1818 became proportionately heavier as manufactured commodities fell in price, partly because some actual changes in rates were made in response to the demands of the Protectionist states.
In 1857 duties were still further reduced, the rate on most protected commodities going down to 24 per cent., and remaining at this comparatively low level until the outbreak of the Civil War.
Thus the ten years immediately following the close of the war brought about the gradual transformation of the high duties levied on all commodities for revenue purposes into a system of high duties almost wholly on protective commodities.
Vanced duties materially on a considerable number of commodities, both raw materials and manufactured articles.
This standard is the basis of the bushel used in the United States and Canada; but other "bushels" for use in connexion with certain commodities have been legalized in different states.
Over £1,250,000 worth of the exports consisted of coffee and bananas, and these commodities were of almost equal value.
A broad line of demarcation is thus drawn between the labour which results in commodities or increased value of commodities, and that which does no more than render services: the former is productive, the latter unproductive.
Machinery, coal, iron, woollens, ships, lead and copper are the commodities supplied by the United Kingdom.
Many of the questions of the greatest practical importance at the present time, such as the competition between old and new methods of manufacturing commodities substantially the same in kind, and equally useful to the great body of consumers, arise largely from the immobility of capital or labour, or both of them.
In the East End and other poor quarters a large trade in second-hand clothing, flowers and vegetables, and many other commodities is carried on in the streets on movable stalls by costermongers and hawkers.
"Rent, therefore, enters into the price of commodities in a different way from wages and profits.
He goes on to show that the variations of prices are due solely to money and commodities in circulation.
The weight of this ideal gold dollar would be adjusted at intervals in accordance with its power to purchase commodities as shown by the " index number " of prices.
To Melos in the earlier Second City Period of Phylakope) and to Cyprus, receiving in return such commodities as Melian obsidian knives.
Syria, and manufactures textiles in silk, cotton and wool, carpets and leather commodities, besides being the centre of a large district growing cereals, pistachios and fruit.
Some commodities, however, are subject to a monopoly of production, whether from the peculiarities of a locality or from legal privilege: their price is always the highest that can be got; the natural price of other commodities is the lowest which can be taken for any length of time together.