In 1495 he produced an edition of the works of Averroes; with a commentary compatible with his acquired orthodoxy.
His diwan has been published with commentary at Beirut, 1887, &c.; with the commentaries of Burini (d.
1730) at Marseilles, 1853, and at Cairo; and with the commentary of Rushayyid Ghalib (19th century) at Cairo, 1893.
- The editio princeps of the works of Archimedes, with the commentary of Eutocius, is that printed at Basel, in 1544, in Greek and Latin, by Hervagius.
The Arenarius and Dimensio Circuli, with Eutocius' commentary on the latter, were edited by Wallis with Latin translation and notes in 1678 (Oxford), and the Arenarius was also published in English by George Anderson (London, 1784), with useful notes and illustrations.
His first work was an inquiry into the authorship of the Commentary on St Paul's Epistles and the Treatise on Biblical Questions, ascribed to Ambrose and Augustine respectively.
The first result of these studies was a translation of the Song of Songs, with a commentary historical and critical, published in 1857.
Beginning in 1867 with the publication of Jacob ben Chajim's Introduction to the Rabbinic Bible, Hebrew and English, with notices, and the Massoreth HaMassoreth of Elias Levita, in Hebrew, with translation and commentary, Dr Ginsburg took rank as an eminent Hebrew scholar.
His Catena Aurea next appeared, which, under the form of a commentary on the Gospels, was really an exhaustive summary of the theological teaching of the greatest of the church fathers.
Accordingly Aquinas prepared himself on this side by commentaries on Aristotle's De Inter pretatione, on his Posterior Analytics, on the Metaphysics, the Physics, the De Anima, and on Aristotle's other psychological and physical writings, each commentary having for its aim to lay hold of the material and grasp the method contained and employed in each treatise.
Forty times, it is said, he read through the Metaphysics of Aristotle, till the words were imprinted on his memory; but their meaning was hopelessly obscure, until one day they found illumination from the little commentary by Farabi, which he bought at a bookstall for the small sum of three dirhems. So great was his joy at the discovery, thus made by help of a work from which he had expected only mystery, that he hastened to return thanks to God, and bestowed an alms upon the poor.
The 15th century has the honour of composing the great commentary on the text of the Canon, grouping around it all that theory had imagined, and all that practice had observed.
-The elaborate and valuable German commentary of A.
Reinke's Commentary (Munster, 1868) is the work of a scholarly Roman Catholic. Haggai has generally been treated in works on all the prophets, as by Ewald (2nd ed., 1868; Eng.
The learned commentary of Marckius may be specially mentioned.
Other literary schemes of larger scope and deeper interest were long in contemplation, but were not destined to take effect - an Essay on the Religions of the World, a Commentary on the Gospels, a Life of Christ, a volume on Moral Ideas.
His literary industry was thenceforth confined to his commentary on the Republic of Plato, and some essays on Aristotle which were to have formed a companion volume to the translation of the Politics.
It has been a common mistake to think of Calvin and contemporary Reformers See Lightfoot's Essay in Commentary on the Epistle to the Philippians.
Editions: (text and exhaustive commentary) E.
He wrote The Religion of Israel (1882); Quotations from the Old Testament in the New Testament (1884); Judaism and Christianity (1890); and the Book of Proverbs (1899) in the "International Critical Commentary"; and edited a translation of Erdmann's commentary on Samuel (1877) in Lange's commentaries; Murray's Origin of the Psalms (1880); and, in Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old Testament, the Book of Ezekiel (Hebrew text and English version, 1899).
- The editio princeps, based mainly on a transcript of D, was printed at Venice, 1472: the first scientific text, based on B, C and D, was that of Camerarius, completed 1552, in whose steps followed Lambinus (with a commentary which is still useful), 1576; Taubmann, 1605-1621; Pareus (a meritorious edition), 1619 and 1623; Guyet, edited by Marolles, 1658; Gronovius (the "Vulgate"), 1664-1684; then, after the lapse of more than a century, came the editions of Bothe, 1809-1811; Naudet, 1830; and Weise, 1837-1848.
The other modern editions of the text are those of Fleckeisen (containing ten plays, excellent for his time), 1859; Ussing (with a commentary), 1875-1887, 2nd ed.
The first edition, with a full commentary based on scientific principles, was that of Aufrecht and Kirchhoff in 1849-1851, and on this all subsequent interpretations are based (Breal, Paris, 1875; Bucheler, Umbrica, Bonn, 1883, a reprint and enlargement of articles in Fleckeisen's Jahrbuch, 18 75, pp. 127 and 313).
Sisenna also translated the tales of Aristides of Miletus, and is supposed by some to have written a commentary on Plautus.
Modern historians, although less rhetorical, speak in the highest terms of the importance of Magna Carta, the view of most of them being summed up in the words of Dr Stubbs: "The whole of the constitutional history of England is a commentary on this charter."
That branch of biology which is termed morphology is a commentary upon, and expansion of, the proposition that widely different animals or plants, and widely different parts of animals or plants, are constructed upon the same plan.
It contains lyrical and ballad poetry, specimens of early exegesis and commentary, lives of the saints, collections of edifying anecdotes and of the now well-known Jatakas or Birth Stories.
Of these, eleven volumes had by 1910 been edited for the Pali Text Society by various scholars, the Jatakas and two other treatises had appeared elsewhere, and two works (one a selection of lives of distinguished early Buddhists, and the other an ancient commentary), were still in MS.
Dhammapala wrote also a commentary on the Netti mentioned above.
Von Soden (1885), with well-considered principles of criticism, made a similar examination and found a much larger nucleus, and later still, (1893), in his commentary, reduced the non-Pauline material to a negligible minimum.
Critical Commentary), pp. 84 sqq., gives a convenient summary.
Apart from the agadic parts of the earlier Mekhilta, Sifra and Sifre, the most important of these collections (which are anonymous) form a sort of continuous commentary on various books of the Bible.
The material thus accumulated, both halakhic and agadic, forming a commentary on and amplification of the Mishnah, was eventually written down under the name of Gemara (from gemar, to learn completely), the two together forming the Talmud (properly "instruction").
Europe, Judah Hadassi composed his Eshkol ha-Kopher, a great theological compendium in the form of a commentary on the Decalogue.
Other writers are Aaron (the elder) ben Joseph, 13th century, who wrote the commentary Sepher ha-mibhhar; Aaron (the younger) of Nicomedia (14th century), author of `E Ilayyim, on philosophy, Gan `Eden, on law, and the commentary Kether Torah; in the 15th century Elijah Bashyazi, on law (Addereth Eliyahu), and Caleb Efendipoulo, poet and theologian; in the 16th century Moses Bashyazi, theologian.
Other works of a different kind also originated in Italy about this time: the very popular history of the Jews, called Josippon (probably of the 10th or even 9th century), ascribed to Joseph ben Gorion (Gorionides) 1; the medical treatises of Shabbethai Donnolo (loth century) and his commentary on the Sepher Ye,zirah, the anonymous and earliest Hebrew kabbalistic work ascribed to the patriarch Abraham.
1050) wrote a commentary on (probably all) the Talmud, and one now lost on the Pentateuch.
The biblical commentary was translated into Latin by Breithaupt (Gotha, 1710-1714), that on the Pentateuch rather freely into German by L.
Yet he contrived to write his great commentary on the Pentateuch and other books of the Bible, treatises on philosophy (as the Yesodh mora), astronomy, mathematics, grammar (translation of Ilayyu j), besides a Diwan.
He was distinguished in his profession as a physician, and wrote a number of medical works in Arabic (including a commentary on the aphorisms of Hippocrates), all of which were translated into Hebrew, and most of them into Latin, becoming the text-books of Europe in the succeeding centuries.
Maimonides also wrote an Arabic commentary on the Mishnah, soon afterwards translated into Hebrew, commentaries on parts of the Talmud (now lost), and a treatise on Logic. His breadth of view anti- and his Aristotelianism were a stumbling-block to the orthodox, and subsequent teachers may be mostly classified as Maimonists or anti-Maimonists.
1226), author of a philosophical treatise in Arabic and of a commentary on the Song of Solomon, found so much difficulty in the new views that the Moreh Nebhukhim was written in order to convince him.
His greatest work is the commentary on the Pentateuch in opposition to Maimonides and Ibn Ezra.
Though put into the form of a commentary on the Pentateuch, it is really an exposition of the kabbalistic view of the universe, and incidentally shows considerable acquaintance with the natural science of the time.
1340) was the author of a very popular commentary on the Pentateuch and of religious discourses entitled Kad ha-gemalz, in both of which, unlike his teacher, he made large use of the Kabbalah.
After 1290), philosopher (following Averroes), poet and author of a commentary on the Moreh.
His son Samuel, who died at Marseilles about 1230, was equally prolific. He translated the Moreh Nebhukhim during the life of the author, and with some help from him, so that this may be regarded as the authorized version; Maimonides' commentary on the Mishnah tractate Pirge.Abhoth, and some minor works; treatises of Averroes and other Arabic authors.
1326), was a translator and the author of an Arabic work on ritual and a commentary on Pirqe Abhoth.
After 1340), wrote a commentary on the liturgy.
At the end of the century Isaac ben Moses, called Profiat Duran (Efodi), is chiefly known as an antiChristian controversialist (letter to Me'ir Alguadez), but also wrote on grammar (Ma`aseh Efod) and a commentary on the Moreh.
About 1500) compiled his very useful commentary on the Mishnah, based on those of Rashi and Maimonides.
In the East, Joseph Karo (Qaro) wrote his Beth Yoseph (Venice, 1550), a commentary on the Tur, and his Shulhan `Arukh (Venice, 1564) an halakhic work like the Tur, which is still a standard authority.
About 1685) wrote the historical work Qore ha-doroth (Venice, 1746), using Jewish and other sources; Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah, kabbalist and student of Luria, wrote Qol be-ramah, a commentary on the Zohar and on the liturgy; Abraham Hayekini, kabbalist, chiefly remembered as a supporter of the would-be Messiah, Shabbethai Zebhi, wrote Hod Malkuth (Constantinople, 1655) and sermons.
He translated into Latin Aristotle's Analytica Priora et Posteriora, the Topica, and Elenchi Sophistici; and he wrote commentaries on Aristotle's Categories, on his book lrEpi Epµnvcias, also a commentary on the Isagoge of Porphyrius.
(See Stahr, Aristoteles bei den Romern, pp. 196-234.) Boetius wrote also a commentary on the Topica of Cicero; and he was also the author of independent works on logic: - Introductio ad Categoricos Syllogismos, in one book; De Syllogismis Categoricis, in two books; De Syllogismis Hypotheticis, in two books; De Divisione, in one book; De Definitione, in one book; De Differentiis Topicis, in four books.
Commentary on Aristotle's De Interpretatione crept vetas), ed.
In 1730 he entered the Mazarin College under the Jansenists, who soon perceived his exceptional talent, and, prompted perhaps by a commentary on the Epistle to the Romans which he produced in the first year of his philosophical course, sought to direct it to theology.
(2 vols., London, 1872), is useful, though the historical commentary has little value.
Maintained in his commentary on Genesis (edition of 1892), has now been abandoned by nearly all scholars of repute.
See Driver, Commentary on Genesis, excursus i.
Crit, Commentary, Judges, Introd.
Duhm, in his epoch-making commentary, distinguishes on the grounds of metre and contents the four servantpassages, in the last of which (lii.
(Giessen, 1900); Karl Marti in his well-known commentary on Isaiah, and F.
Commentary on Deuteronomy, Introd.
Clicking through slides, her commentary sounded dramatic and her gestures showed excitement for the art.