Viljoen's commando, with which Pretorius was in sympathy, was known as the Volksleger, or Army of the People.
There was little fighting, but the commando carried off between two and three hundred native women and children - some of whom were redeemed by their friends, and some escaped, while many of the children were apprenticed to farmers.
General Botha stated that there were 83,000 burghers from 15 to 65 years of age on the commando lists.
Warden led against the Basuto a commando composed of British soldiers, farmers and a native contingent.
This commando was defeated at Viervoet, near Thaba Nchu, by the Basuto, who thereafter raided and plundered the natives opposed to them and the farmers who had helped the British.
Returning south, Pretorius and his commando were surprised to learn that Port Natal had been occupied on the 4th of December by a detachment of the 72nd Highlanders sent thither from the Cape.
This feeling was, however, changed by what Sir George (and many of the Dutch in Natal also) thought a wilful and unjustifiable attack (December 1840) on a tribe of Kaffirs on the southern, or Cape Colony, frontier by a commando under Andries Pretorius, which set out, nominally, to recover stolen cattle.
The Boers, cut off from their port, called out a commando of some 300 to 400 men under Andries Pretorius and gathered at Congella at the head of the bay.
Sechele was regarded by the Boers as owing them allegiance, and in August 1852 Pretorius sent against him a commando (in which Paul Kruger served as a field cornet), alleging that the Bakwena were harbouring a Bakatla chief who had looted cattle belonging to Boer farmers.
A commando was called out, which the president himself led.
During the year a Boer commando under Paul Kruger and an army under Cetywayo were posted along the Utrecht border.
A Zulu kraal having been raided, the Zulu retaliated and, surrounding a small Boer commando, succeeded in killing every member of it.
At a later date (1865) the Boers tried to raise taxes from the Barolong, but without success, a commando sent against them in 1868 being driven off by Montsioa's brother Molema.
In 1900, Bloemfontein and Pretoria having been occupied by British troops, Kruger, too old to go on commando, with the consent of his executive proceeded to Europe, where he endeavoured to induce the European powers to intervene on his behalf, but without success.
The Kaffirs had suffered much injustice, especially from the commando-reprisal system, but they had also committed many injustices, and for the disturbed state of the border the vacillating policy of the Cape government was largely to blame.
On the 11th of December 1834 a chief of high rank was killed while resisting a commando party.
This act led to reprisals, and on the 17th of January 1837 a Boer commando surprised Mosilikatze's encampment at Mosega, inflicting heavy loss on the Matabele without themselves 1 Two small children were spared and brought up as Kaffirs.