Samsat itself represents the ancient Samosata, the capital of the Seleucid kings of Commagene (Kuinukh of the Assyrian inscriptions), and here the Persian Royal Road from Sardis to Susa is supposed to have crossed the river.
Commagene (Kummukh), Cyrrhestica, Phoenicia, Palestine, &c. It is ineffective in history, especially on the south and east.
With the exception of the extreme north (Commagene), which is shut off by a barrier of hills and belongs to foreign hydrographic systems, the whole country is roughly a gable-shaped plateau, falling north and south from a medial ridge, which crosses Syria at about its central point.
Outside the basins of these rivers and their bordering mountain systems there only remain to be considered the following: (I) The Mediterranean littoral strip (the ancient Phoenicia), with a few torrent-like streams. (2) The shut-off district in the extreme north, ancient Commagene, which consists of two basins divided by a low ridge running from south to north.
Commagene, where not rocky, and the district lying along the southward drains from its divide (anc. Cyrrhestica), is in better case, enjoying perennial streams which can be utilized, and the fringe of the Tauric rainfall.
In the extreme north (Commagene) the highlands are almost entirely held by Kurds who entered from beyond Euphrates in comparatively recent times.
The conspicuous monument which crowns the Museum Hill was erected as the mausoleum of Antiochus Philopappus of Commagene, grandson of Antiochus Epiphanes, in A.D.
Commagene was independent under a king,MithradatesCallinicus, in the earlier part of the last century B.C. Syria itself in the last days of the Seleucid dynasty is seen to be breaking up into petty principalities, Greek or native.
One of them, the royal house of Commagene, not deposed by the Romans till A.D.
Since then a number of other monuments have been found, some on new sites, others on sites already known to be Hittite, the distribution of which can be seen by reference to the accompanying map. It will be observed that, so far as at present known, they cluster most closely in Commagene, Cappadocia and S.
Antiochus of Commagene instituted an order of priests to celebrate the anniversary of his birth and coronation in a special sanctuary, and the kings of Pergamum claimed divine honours for themselves and their wives during their lifetime.
His first campaign was against the Moschi who had occupied certain Assyrian districts on the Upper Euphrates; then he overran Commagene and eastern Cappadocia, and drove the Hittites from the Assyrian province of Subarti north-east of Malatia.
The name was subsequently borne by the kings of Commagene (69 B.C.-A.D.
To the provinces of Cappadocia and Commagene Roman governors were assigned; Parthia was conciliated by the banishment of the dethroned king Vonones.
Of Commagene, who without sufficient reason has been identified with the Seleucid Antiochus XIII.
Born about 680 in the Syrian province of Commagene, he rose to distinction in the military service, and under Anastasius II.
17 Commagene became a Roman province.