In the Miles and the Poenulus) the result is generally not happy; and the romanization of the plays by way of allusions to towns in Italy, to the streets, gates and markets of Rome, to Roman magistrates and their duties, to Roman laws and the business of Roman law-courts, banks, comitia and senate, &c., involves the poet in all the difficulties of attempting to blend two different civilizations.
According to Mommsen, the aerarii were originally the non-assidui (non-holders of land), excluded from the tribes, the comitia and the army.
Until the reform of the comitia centuriata (probabl' during the censorship of Gaius Flaminius in 220 B.C.; *see Comitia),` the equites had voted first, but after that time this privilege was transferred to tine cenfury selected by lot from the centuries of ' the equites and the first class.
They were created in the same year as the tribunes of the people (494 B.C.), their persons were sacrosanct or inviolable, and (at least after 471) they were elected at the Comitia Tributa out of the plebeians alone.
42), after the passing of the Licinian rogations, an extra day was added to the Roman games; the aediles refused to bear the additional expense, whereupon the patricians offered to undertake it, on condition that they were admitted to the aedileship. The plebeians accepted the offer, and accordingly two " curule "aediles were appointed - at first from the patricians alone, then from patricians and plebeians in turn, lastly, from either - at the Comitia Tributa under the presidency of the consul.
COMITIA, the name applied, always in technical and generally in popular phraseology, to the most formal types of gathering of the sovereign people in ancient Rome.
These were concilium, comitia and contio.
It was, therefore, a word that might be employed to denote an organized gathering of a portion of the Roman people such as the plebs, and in this sense is contrasted with comitia, which when used strictly should signify an assembly of the whole people.
Thus the Roman draughtsman who wishes to express the idea "magistrates of any kind as president of assemblies" writes "Magistratus queiquomque comitia conciliumve habebit" (Lex Latina tabulae Bantinae, 1.5), and formalism required that a magistrate who summoned only a portion of the people to meet him should, in his summons, use the word concilium.
This view is expressed by Laelius Felix, a lawyer probably of the age of Hadrian, when he writes "Is qui non universum populum, sed partem aliquam adesse jubet, non comitia, sed concilium edicere debet" (Gellius, Nodes Atticae, xv.
But popular phraseology did not conform to this canon, and comitia, which gained in current Latin the sense of "elections" was sometimes used of the assemblies of the Halley concluded that all the three orbits belonged to the same comet, of which the periodic time was about 76 years.
The distinction between comitia and contio wasmoreclearly marked.
Case of the comitia, the magistrate's purpose was to ask a question Tuttle's comet was first seen by P. F.
The word comitia merely means "meetings."
The earliest comitia was one organized on the basis of parishes (curiae) and known in later times as the comitia curiata.
The organization which gave rise to the comitia centuriata was the result of the earliest steps in the political emancipation of the plebs.
The tribunate called into existence a purely plebeian assembly, firstly, for the election of plebeian magistrates; secondly, for jurisdiction in cases where these magistrates had been injured; thirdly, for presenting petitions on behalf of the plebs through the consuls to the comitia centuriata.
The comitia tributa populi was the result.
There were no limitations on the legislative powers of the comitia except such as they chose to respect or which they themselves created and might repeal.
After these hearings the comitia gave its verdict.
The distribution of these functions amongst the various comitia, and the differences in their organization, were as follows: The comitia curiata had in the later Republic become a merely formal assembly.
This assembly also met, under the name of the comitia calata and under the presidency of the pontifex maximus, for certain religious acts.
For the purpose of passing the lex curiata, and probably for its other purposes as well, this comitia was in Cicero's day represented by but thirty lictors (Cic. de Lege Agraria, ii.
The comitia centuriata could be summoned and presided over only by the magistrates with imperium.
The internal structure of the comitia centuriata underwent a great change during the Republic - a change which has been conjecturally attributed to the censorship of Flaminius in 220 B.C. (Mommsen, Staatsrecht, iii.
The total votes in the comitia would thus be 70+ too- 5 (fabri, &c.) +18 (knights), i.e.
But this change was not permanent as the more liberal system prevails in the Ciceronian period The comitia tributa was in the later Republic the usual organ for laws passed by the whole people.
When the tenure of the religious colleges - formerly filled up by co-optation - was submitted to popular election, a change effected by a lex Domitia of 104 B.C., a new type of comitia was devised for this purpose.
There was a body of rules governing the comitia which were concerned with the time and place of meeting, the forms of promulgation and the methods of voting.
The comitia curiata and the two assemblies of the tribes met within the walls, the former usually in the Comitium, the latter in the Forum or on the Area Capitolii; but the elections at these assemblies were in the later Republic held in the Campus Martius outside the walls.
The comitia centuriata was by law compelled to meet outside the city and its gathering place was usually the Campus.
The comitia survived the Republic. The last known act of comitial legislation belongs to the reign of Nerva (A.D.
Their citizens were called upon to pay the same dues and perform the same service in the legions as full Roman citizens, but were deprived of the chief privileges of citizenship, those of voting in the Comitia (jus suffragii), and of holding Roman magistracies (jus honorum).
The citizens were grouped in either tribes or curiae, and accordingly the assembly sometimes bore the name of Comitia Tributa, sometimes that of Comitia Curiata.
The theoretical powers of these comitia were extensive both in the election of magistrates and in legislation.
The senatorial recommendation of jhe necessary number of candidates seems to have been merely ratified in the comitia; and a Spanish municipal law of the 1st century makes special provision for occasions on which an insufficient number of candidates are forthcoming.
They appear to have been regarded as subordinate colleagues (collegae minores) of the Ilviri juri dicundo, and in some towns at least to have had the right to convene and preside over the comitia in the absence of the latter.
But in Cicero's time they were elected by the Comitia Tributa.
Originally the quaestors seem to have been nominated by the consuls, but later, perhaps from the fall of the decemvirs (449 B.C.), they were elected by the people assembled in tribes (comitia tributa) under the presidency of a consul or another of the higher magistrates.
The decemvirs ruled with singular moderation, and submitted to the Comitia Centuriata a code of laws in ten headings, which was passed.
They were originally a body of jurors which gave a verdict under the presidency of the praetor, but eventually became annual minor magistrates of the Republic, elected by the Comitia Tributa.
He left for Italy on the 4th of August 57, and on arriving at Brundisium (Brindisi) found that he had been recalled by a law passed by the comitia on the very day of his departure.
Under the terms of this the consuls, who were optimates, bound themselves to betray their party by securing, apparently fraudulently, the election of the candidates while they in turn bound themselves to procure two ex-consuls who would swear that they were present in the senate when supplies were voted for the consular provinces, though no meeting of the senate had been held, and three augurs who would swear that a lex curiata had been passed, though the comitia curiata had not been convened (Att.
The praetors were elected, like the consuls, by the people assembled in the comitia centuriata and with the same formalities.'
They were originally nominated by the higher magistrates, but subsequently elected in a body at a single sitting of the comitia tributa; under the empire they were chosen by the senate.
Before the next comitia consularia assembled, the orator had given so impressive a warning of the danger which was impending, that Catiline was once more rejected (63), and the consuls were invested with absolute authority.
They originally summoned the comitia curiata, and when its meetings became merely a formality, acted as the representatives of that assembly.
Amongst its members the following may be mentioned: Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, tribune of the people 104 B.C., brought forward a law (lex Domitia de Sacerdotiis) by which the priests of the superior colleges were to be elected by the people in the comitia tributa (seventeen of the tribes voting) instead of by co-optation; the law was repealed by Sulfa, revived by Julius Caesar and (perhaps) again repealed by Marcus Antonius, the triumvir (Cicero, De Lege Agraria, ii.
It was subsequently used in Republican times of an officer appointed to hold the comitia for the election of the consuls when for some reason the retiring consuls had not done so.
60), Spurius Lucretius held the comitia as interrex, and from that time down to the Second Punic War such officers were from time to time appointed.