This comet has given rise to a longer series of investigations than any other, owing to Encke's result that the orbit was becoming smaller, and the revolutions therefore accelerated, by some unknown cause, of which the most plausible was a resisting medium surrounding the sun.
Crommelin of Greenwich, the latter having carried the comet back to 87 B.C. with certainty, and to 240 B.C. with fair probability.
Faye in November 1843, the other by Francesco de Vico a year later, were minutely investigated by Leverrier, with the result of disproving the supposed identity of the first with Lexell's lost comet of 1770, and of the other with Tycho's of 1585.
His schooling began at Leonberg in 1577 - the year, as he himself tells us, of a great comet; but domestic bankruptcy occasioned his transference to field-work, in which he was exclusively employed for several years.
After a rough estimate of the perturbations it must sustain from the attraction of the planets, he predicted its return for 1757,-a bold prediction at that time, but justified by the event, for the comet again made its appearance as was expected, though it did not pass through its perihelion till the month of March 1759, the attraction of Jupiter and Saturn having caused, as was computed by Clairault previously to its return, a retardation of 618 days.
His great contribution to astronomy dates from 1866, when he showed that meteors or shooting stars traverse space in cometary orbits, and, in particular, that the orbits of the Perseids and Comet III., 1862, and of the Leonids and Comet I., 1866, were practically the same.
From the day when Pierre, after leaving the Rostovs' with Natasha's grateful look fresh in his mind, had gazed at the comet that seemed to be fixed in the sky and felt that something new was appearing on his own horizon--from that day the problem of the vanity and uselessness of all earthly things, that had incessantly tormented him, no longer presented itself.
In any case the orbits of comets are exposed to such tremendous perturbations from the planets that it is unsafe from the present orbit of a comet to conjecture what that orbit may have been in remote antiquity.
Biela's comet of 1826, which had a period of 6.7 years, presented a significant resemblance of orbit with that of the meteors, but the comet has not been seen since 1852 and has probably been resolved into the meteoric stream of Andromedids.
In the Bundahish, however (9th century), the twelve " Akhtars," designated by the same names as our signs, lead the army of Ormazd, while the seven " Awakhtars " or planets (including a meteor and a comet) fight for Ahriman.
The list of his works of fiction includes The Stolen Bacillus and other Stories (1895), The Wonderful Visit (1895), The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), The Plattner Story and Others (1897), When the Sleeper Wakes (1899), The First Men in the Moon (1901), The Food of the Gods (1904), In the Days of the Comet (1906), The War in the Air (1908), Anne Veronica (1909), The History of Mr Polly (191 0).
In Pierre, however, that comet with its long luminous tail aroused no feeling of fear.
His observations of the great comet of January 1672 supplied the basis of modern cometary astronomy.
Simon, its reputed author, and exalts him above Moses; (2) it mystically explains the Hebrew vowel points, which did not obtain till 570; (3) the compiler borrows two verses from the celebrated hymn called " The Royal Diadem," written by Ibn Gabirol, who was born about 1021; (4) it mentions the capture of Jerusalem by the crusaders and the re-taking of the Holy City by the Saracens; (5) it speaks of the comet which appeared at Rome, 15th July 1264, under the pontificate of Urban IV.; (6) by a slip the Zohar assigns a reason why its contents were not revealed before5060-5066A.M., i.e.1300-1306A.D., (7) the doctrine of the En Soph and the Sephiroth was not known before the 13th century; and (8) the very existence of the Zohar itself was not known prior 1 See, e.g., G.
They are probably dispersed pretty evenly along a very extended ellipse agreeing closely in its elements with comet 1862: III.
But the times of revolution are doubtful; the probable period of the comet is 121 years and that of the meteors 1051 years.
A comet which appeared in 1861 had a very suggestive agreement of orbit when compared with that of the meteors, and the period computed for it was 415 year's.
Halley's comet conforms very well, however, with a meteoric shower directed from Aquarius early in May.
Denning's comet of 1881 and Finlay's of 1886, approached comparatively near to the earth's path, the former within 3,000,000 m.
In the same year he published his essay on comets, Conamen Novi Systematis Cometarum, which was occasioned by the appearance of the comet of 1680.
In 1812 Bessel measured with it the angle between the components of the double star 61 Cygni and observed the great comet of 1811.
Thus a comet may be encountered in the morning dawn or evening twilight, and without such an adjunct the astronomer may lose the whole available opportunity for observation in the vain endeavour to find a suitable comparison-star.
Directing the finder to the comet, he has at once in the field of view all available comparison stars.
Having selected the most suitable one he directs the axis of the finder to the estimated middle point between the comet and the star, turns the finder-micrometer in position angle until the images of comet and star lie symmetrically between the parallel position wires, and then turns the micrometer screw (which moves the distance-wires symmetrically from the centre in opposite directions) till one wire bisects the comet and the other the star.
When the scales and position-circle of the heliometer have been set to these readings, the comet and the selected comparison-star appear together in the field of view.
But popular phraseology did not conform to this canon, and comitia, which gained in current Latin the sense of "elections" was sometimes used of the assemblies of the Halley concluded that all the three orbits belonged to the same comet, of which the periodic time was about 76 years.
This comet had been observed in 1066, and the accounts which have been preserved represent it as having then appeared to be four times the size of Venus, and to have shone with a light equal to a fourth of that of the moon.
That this should have been due to the process of dissipation does not seem possible in so short a period; we must therefore consider either that the earlier accounts are greatly exaggerated, or that the brightness of the comet is subject to changes from some unknown cause.
The known comet of shortest period bears the name of J.
As this comet is almost the only one that passes within the orbit of Mercury, it is quite possible that it alone would show the effect of such a medium.
Case of the comitia, the magistrate's purpose was to ask a question Tuttle's comet was first seen by P. F.
But although these sometimes wander to distances considerably beyond the orbit of Neptune, it is probable that the extent of the void which separates our system from the nearest star is hundreds of times the distance of the farthest point to which a comet ever recedes.
The orbit of a newly-discovered planet or comet may be computed from three complete observations by well-known methods in a single day.
Among them were an elegant solution of the problem to determine the orbit of a comet from three observations, and memoirs on the micrometer and achromatic telescopes.
., ` n Ben kelmao ., „ comet, nv, ........
The cuts for y e Comet of 1680 & 1681 are printed off and will be sent to Dr Bently this week by the Carrier."
As an undergraduate he became deeply interested in astronomy; he observed the comet of 1759 and the transit of Venus of June 1769, and left a quarto volume of astronomical notes.
In 1804 he calculated the orbit of Halley's comet from observations made in 1607 by Thomas Harriot, and communicated his results to H.
A masterly investigation of the comet of 1807 (Konigsberg, 1810) enhanced his reputation, and the king of Prussia summoned him, in 1810, to superintend the erection of a new observatory at Konigsberg, of which he acted as director from its completion in 1813 until his death.
In January 1812 he placed on the Clyde a steamboat (which he named the "Comet") of about 25 tons, propelled by an engine of three horse power, at a speed of 7 m.
The course of the rays in the meridional section is no longer symmetrical to the principal ray of the pencil; and on an intercepting plane there appears, instead of a luminous point, a patch of light, not symmetrical about a point, and often exhibiting a resemblance to a comet having its tail directed towards or away from the axis.
Michell's other contributions to science are: " Observations on the Comet of January 1760 at Cambridge, Phil.